Ultimate Collection of Over 400 Vaping Study’s & Scientific Research Papers

The Ultimate Resource for Researching Vaping Health Studies & Peer Reviewed Journal Articles on E-Cigarettes


Over 400 Documents as of 2/2022

Our goal is to build the largest directory of scientific research papers on vaping/e-cigarettes!

We have gathered over 400 vape studies, research papers, survey results, stats, and other important information on electronic cigarette resources in one place.


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Vaping Study’s & Scientific Research Papers

Vaping Study's & Scientific Research Papers

Collection of Over 400 Vaping Study's & Scientific Research Papers covering electronic cigarettes and vaping. We have gathered over 400 vape studies, research papers, survey results, stats, and other important electronic cigarette resources right here to help journalists or anyone else interested in this content.
YearItem TitleJournal, Publish DateLinkLong DescriptionTags
2013[Comparison of the aerosol produced by electronic cigarettes with conventional cigarettes and the shisha]Revue des maladies respiratoires (p. 1/11/2013)LINKIn previous studies of the smoke from regular cigarettes and water pipes, we measured aerosol particle sizes in three streams; S1, inhaled by the smoker, S2, released by the device itself and S3, exhaled by the smoker. We used an electrostatic low-pressure impactor (ELPI), giving particle size distributions in real time and calculated median diameters, D50, and dispersion (σg). This allowed us to predict airway deposition. In addition, the aerosol particle half-life in the air was used as a measure of the risk to others from passive smoking. With the same equipment, we measured the particle sizes and persistence in air of the liquid aerosol generated by e-cigarettes (Cigarettec®) containing water, propylene glycol and flavorings with or without nicotine. Aerosol generation was triggered by a syringe or by the inspiration of volunteer smokers. The D50 data obtained in S1, were 0.65 μm with nicotine and 0.60 μm without nicotine. Deposition in the airways could then be calculated: 26% of the total would deposit, of which 14% would reach the alveoli. These data are close to those found with regular cigarettes. For S3, D50 data were 0.34 μm and 0.29 μm with or without nicotine. The half-life in air of the S3 stream was 11 seconds due to a rapid evaporation. The-e-cigarette aerosol, as measured here, is made of particles bigger than those of cigarette and water pipe aerosols. Their deposition in the lung depends on their fate in the airways, which is unknown. Contrary to tobacco smoke, which has a half-life in air of 19 to 20 minutes, the risk of passive smoking" exposure from e-cigarettes is modest."""Tags: (Aerosol; Aérosol; E-cigarette; Electronic cigarette; Nicotine; Particle sizes; Passive smoking; Tabagisme passif; Tailles particulaires)
2012[Electronic cigarette--a safe substitute for tobacco cigarette or a new threat?Przeglad lekarski (p. 2012)LINKThe aim of this paper was to summarize up-to-date data on the new emerging nicotine containing product 'electronic cigarette', commonly referred as e-cigarette. We presented data on prevalence and popularity of various brands and models on domestic markets. Development of the new products with technical and chemical modifications was also described. We reviewed studies on chemical composition and efficacy of nicotine delivery from e-cigarettes and discussed its potential use as nicotine replacement for tobacco cigarettes. Regulatory policies on e-cigarette sale as nicotine containing product were also discussed. We concluded that e-cigarette might be an effective harm reduction tool but little is known about its safety, especially when used for a long time. Despite many positive findings from surveys among e-cigarettes users, there is need for comprehensive state-of-the-at clinical trials to show efficacy of e-cigarette as smoking cessation tool.
2015[Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?Praxis (p. 7/1/2015)LINKElectronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.Tags: (Elektronische Zigaretten; Rauchstopp; Sicherheit; Wirksamkeit; arrêt du tabac; cigarette électronique; efficacité; efficacy; electronic cigarettes; nicotine; safety; smoking cessation; sécurité)
2012[Evaluation of changes in hemodynamic parameters after the use of electronic nicotine delivery systems among regular cigarette smokers]Przeglad lekarski (p. 2012)LINKA relatively new device, described by producers as a device to help smokers quit, nicotine inhaler is an electronic (e-cigarette). Its mission is to provide the body with small doses of nicotine behavior ceremonial" burning product is not tested for efficacy and toxicity The aim of this study was to compare the effects of nicotine absorbed from cigarette conventional and electronic changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Because of the potential interaction of carbon monoxide contained in cigarette smoke and nicotine conventional to changes on the parameters is also going to examine changes in the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin after smoking cigarettes and using e-cigarettes. study group consisted of 42 people" including 21 women and 21 men aged from 18 to 62 years who declared daily cigarette smoking. In this study it was found that as a result of cigarette smoking are increasing all the analyzed conventional hemodynamic parameters
2018A cloud on the horizon-a survey into the use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and new psychoactive substance (NPS) administrationQJM (p. 1/1/2018)LINKBackground: There is limited published scientific data on vaping recreational drugs other than cannabis. A recent review suggested that 15% of people vaping cannabis have also vaped a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) and identified over 300 Internet reports of e-liquid manufacture of recreational drugs and/or new psychoactive substances (NPS). Aim: To determine the prevalence of use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and NPS delivery in the UK. Design: A voluntary online survey using a convenience sample of UK adult participants (aged 16 years old and over) identified by a market research company. Methods: Data was collected regarding demographics, smoking history, electronic vaping device history and recreational drug/NPS use and route of administration. Results: There were 2501 respondents. The mean (±SD) age was 46.2 ± 16.8 years old. The commonest lifetime recreational drug used was Cannabis (818, 32.7%). The majority of respondents had smoked (1545, 61.8%) with 731 (29.2%) being current smokers. The most commonly used SCRA product was 'Spice Gold' (173, 6.9%) and SCRA compound was ADB-CHMICA (48, 1.9%). 861 (34.4%) had used an electronic vaping device; 340 (13.6%) having used them for recreational drug administration; 236 (9.4%) reporting current use. The commonest lifetime recreational drug to be vaped was cannabis (155, 65.7%), with electronic cigarettes (230, 48.2%) being the commonest reported route of SCRA compound administration. Conclusion: 9.4% of respondents currently use electronic vaping devices for recreational drug administration with 6.2% reporting lifetime cannabis vaping use. Further larger scale studies are required to help inform the appropriate treatment and primary prevention strategies.
2018A cluster randomized pilot trial of a tailored worksite smoking cessation intervention targeting Hispanic/Latino construction workers: Intervention development and research designContemporary clinical trials (p. 1/4/2018)LINKConstruction workers have the highest smoking rate among all occupations (39%). Hispanic/Latino workers constitute a large and increasing group in the US construction industry (over 2.6 million; 23% of all workers). These minority workers have lower cessation rates compared to other groups due to their limited access to cessation services, and lack of smoking cessation interventions adapted to their culture and work/life circumstances. Formative research was conducted to create an intervention targeting Hispanic/Latino construction workers. This paper describes the intervention development and the design, methods, and data analysis plans for an ongoing cluster pilot two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing an Enhanced Care worksite cessation program to Standard Care. Fourteen construction sites will be randomized to either Enhanced Care or Standard Care and 126 participants (63/arm) will be recruited. In both arms, recruitment and intervention delivery occur around food trucks" that regularly visit the construction sites. Participants at Enhanced Care sites will receive the developed intervention consisting of a single face-to-face group counseling session"
2017A comparison of nicotine dependence among exclusive E-cigarette and cigarette users in the PATH studyPreventive medicine (p. 1/11/2017)LINKElectronic cigarettes (e-cigs") have recently gained in popularity" but their health risks
2017A critique of the US Surgeon General's conclusions regarding e-cigarette use among youth and young adults in the United States of AmericaHarm reduction journal (p. 9/6/2017)LINKBACKGROUND: In December 2016, the Surgeon General published a report that concluded e-cigarette use among youth and young adults is becoming a major public health concern in the United States of America. METHODS: Re-analysis of key data sources on nicotine toxicity and prevalence of youth use of e-cigarettes cited in the Surgeon General report as the basis for its conclusions. RESULTS: Multiple years of nationally representative surveys indicate the majority of e-cigarette use among US youth is either infrequent or experimental, and negligible among never-smoking youth. The majority of the very small proportion of US youth who use e-cigarettes on a regular basis, consume nicotine-free products. The sharpest declines in US youth smoking rates have occurred as e-cigarettes have become increasingly available. Most of the evidence presented in the Surgeon General's discussion of nicotine harm is not applicable to e-cigarette use, because it relies almost exclusively on exposure to nicotine in the cigarette smoke and not to nicotine present in e-cigarette aerosol emissions. Moreover, the referenced literature describes effects in adults, not youth, and in animal models that have little relevance to real-world e-cigarette use by youth. The Surgeon General's report is an excellent reference document for the adverse outcomes due to nicotine in combination with several other toxicants present in tobacco smoke, but fails to address the risks of nicotine decoupled from tobacco smoke constituents. The report exaggerates the toxicity of propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG) by focusing on experimental conditions that do not reflect use in the real-world and provides little discussion of emerging evidence that e-cigarettes may significantly reduce harm to smokers who have completely switched. CONCLUSIONS: The U.S. Surgeon General's claim that e-cigarette use among U.S. youth and young adults is an emerging public health concern does not appear to be supported by the best available evidence on the health risks of nicotine use and population survey data on prevalence of frequent e-cigarette use. Nonetheless, patterns of e-cigarettes use in youth must be constantly monitored for early detection of significant changes. The next US Surgeon General should consider the possibility that future generations of young Americans will be less likely to start smoking tobacco because of, not in spite of, the availability of e-cigarettes.Tags: (Adolescents; E-cigarettes; Nicotine; US Surgeon General; Youth)
2016A direct method for e-cigarette aerosol sample collectionEnvironmental research (p. 1/8/2016)LINKE-cigarette use is increasing in populations around the world. Recent evidence has shown that the aerosol produced by e-cigarettes can contain a variety of toxicants. Published studies characterizing toxicants in e-cigarette aerosol have relied on filters, impingers or sorbent tubes, which are methods that require diluting or extracting the sample in a solution during collection. We have developed a collection system that directly condenses e-cigarette aerosol samples for chemical and toxicological analyses. The collection system consists of several cut pipette tips connected with short pieces of tubing. The pipette tip-based collection system can be connected to a peristaltic pump, a vacuum pump, or directly to an e-cigarette user for the e-cigarette aerosol to flow through the system. The pipette tip-based system condenses the aerosol produced by the e-cigarette and collects a liquid sample that is ready for analysis without the need of intermediate extraction solutions. We tested a total of 20 e-cigarettes from 5 different brands commercially available in Maryland. The pipette tip-based collection system condensed between 0.23 and 0.53mL of post-vaped e-liquid after 150 puffs. The proposed method is highly adaptable, can be used during field work and in experimental settings, and allows collecting aerosol samples from a wide variety of e-cigarette devices, yielding a condensate of the likely exact substance that is being delivered to the lungs.Tags: (Aerosol; E-cigarettes; Method; Sampling)
2013A fresh look at tobacco harm reduction: the case for the electronic cigaretteHarm reduction journal (p. 10/4/2013)LINKSmokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document that most smokers would like to quit, and many have made repeated efforts to do so. However, conventional smoking cessation approaches require nicotine addicted smokers to abstain from tobacco and nicotine entirely. Many smokers are unable--or at least unwilling--to achieve this goal, and so they continue smoking in the face of impending adverse health consequences. In effect, the status quo in smoking cessation presents smokers with just two unpleasant alternatives: quit or suffer the harmful effects of continuing smoking. But, there is a third choice for smokers: tobacco harm reduction. It involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products like snus and the electronic cigarette (E-cig), or even pharmaceutical nicotine products, as a replacement for smoking. E-cigs might be the most promising product for tobacco harm reduction to date, because, besides delivering nicotine vapour without the combustion products that are responsible for nearly all of smoking's damaging effect, they also replace some of the rituals associated with smoking behaviour. Thus it is likely that smokers who switch to E-cigs will achieve large health gains. The focus of this article is on the health effects of using an E-cig, with consideration given to the acceptability, safety and effectiveness of this product as a long-term substitute for smoking.
2014A Hot Debate Over E-Cigarettes as a Path to Tobacco, or From It(p. 2/23/201)LINKSome public health experts see e-cigarettes as a gateway to tobacco use, while others think they could help eradicate conventional cigarettes.
2015A longitudinal study of electronic cigarette use among a population-based sample of adult smokers: association with smoking cessation and motivation to quitNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/2/2015)LINKAIMS: Increasingly popular electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be the most promising development yet to end cigarette smoking. However, there is sparse evidence that their use promotes cessation. We investigated whether e-cigarette use increases smoking cessation and/or has a deleterious effect on quitting smoking and motivation to quit. METHODS: Representative samples of adults in 2 US metropolitan areas were surveyed in 2011/2012 about their use of novel tobacco products. In 2014, follow-up interviews were conducted with 695 of the 1,374 baseline cigarette smokers who had agreed to be re-contacted (retention rate: 51%). The follow-up interview assessed their smoking status and history of electronic cigarette usage. Respondents were categorized as intensive users (used e-cigarettes daily for at least 1 month), intermittent users (used regularly, but not daily for more than 1 month), and non-users/triers (used e-cigarettes at most once or twice). RESULTS: At follow-up, 23% were intensive users, 29% intermittent users, 18% had used once or twice, and 30% had not tried e-cigarettes. Logistic regression controlling for demographics and tobacco dependence indicated that intensive users of e-cigarettes were 6 times more likely than non-users/triers to report that they quit smoking (OR: 6.07, 95% CI = 1.11, 33.2). No such relationship was seen for intermittent users. There was a negative association between intermittent e-cigarette use and 1 of 2 indicators of motivation to quit at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Daily use of electronic cigarettes for at least 1 month is strongly associated with quitting smoking at follow-up. Further investigation of the underlying reasons for intensive versus intermittent use will help shed light on the mechanisms underlying the associations between e-cigarette use, motivation to quit, and smoking cessation.
2014A longitudinal study of electronic cigarette usersAddictive behaviors (p. 1/2/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: To assess behavior change over 12 months in users of e-cigarettes (vapers"). METHODS: Longitudinal Internet survey 2011 to 2013. Participants were enrolled on websites dedicated to e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. We assessed use of e-cigarettes and tobacco among the same cohort at baseline
2019A pilot investigation of the effect of electronic cigarettes on smoking behavior among opioid-dependent smokersAddictive behaviors (p. 1/4/2019)LINKINTRODUCTION: Compared to the general population, smoking rates are 2-4 times higher among individuals with opioid use disorders (OUDs). These smokers also have poor long-term cessation rates, even with pharmacotherapy or other interventions. Low success rates with traditional approaches may prompt smokers with OUDs to try more novel products like electronic cigarettes (ECIGs). This pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and effect of ECIGs on smoking behavior among smokers with OUD. METHODS: Participants (N = 25) were daily smokers receiving buprenorphine/naloxone for OUD at an outpatient clinic. They were randomized to use a second-generation ECIG (0 or 18 ng/ml nicotine) ad libitum for two weeks while completing assessments via text messaging daily, and also via in-person visits at baseline, end of the two-week intervention, and a 4-week follow-up. RESULTS: Feasibility was evidenced by high enrollment (93.9%) and retention (70.9%) rates. ECIG adherence was relatively high as measured by self-report (80.6% active, 91.7% placebo), while the average volume of liquid used per week was low (~3 ml). Both ECIG doses produced reductions in self-reported cigarettes per day that were not supported by average carbon monoxide levels. Biologically-confirmed smoking abstinence was observed in 8% of participants. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results suggest that smokers with OUD are interested in using ECIGs, but their adherence may be less than ideal. Poor medication adherence rates are often observed in this disparate population, and future work should consider the use of other ECIG device types and a combination of methods to verify and quantify ECIG use.Tags: (Buprenorphine; Electronic cigarette; Naloxone; Opioid; Smoking)
2019A Pilot Study of E-Cigarette Naïve Cigarette Smokers and the Effects on Craving After Acute Exposure to E-Cigarettes in the LaboratoryThe American journal on addictions (p. 1/9/2019)LINKBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent surveys confirm continued increases in the use of electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in adolescents and adults. Users often state that e-cigarettes reduce tobacco craving and withdrawal symptoms in addition to their smoking. Data from laboratory studies and clinical trials have confirmed these statements, though there are inconsistencies in the outcomes. In this pilot study, we set out to evaluate the effects of e-cigarettes, as compared to the participants' own cigarettes, on baseline craving and smoking severity. METHODS: Using a within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design, 15 tobacco-dependent, e-cigarette naïve participants sustained abstinence overnight. They completed distinct phases of this protocol during four separate study sessions. Participants were randomized to an e-cigarette device containing one of three doses of nicotine (0, 18, or 36 mg/ml) or their own cigarette. Each study visit was ~3 hours long and separated by at least 7 days. Visits included assessments of craving and smoking severity. RESULTS: The data showed that after 10 puffs in both the Own cigarette and e-cigarette conditions, breath carbon monoxide levels increased significantly in the former but not the latter. Questionnaire of Smoking Urges and Choices to Smoke scores were not statistically different across groups after two distinct bouts of 10 puffs each. Additionally, E-cigarette Perceptions Questionnaire responses were not significantly different according to dose. CONCLUSION AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This experiment provides data demonstrating that e-cigarettes did not reduce craving or smoking severity in e-cigarette naïve users. However, since this was a pilot study, the conclusions that can be drawn are limited. (Am J Addict 2019;28:361-366).
2016A Pilot Study of Retail 'Vape Shops' in the San Francisco Bay AreaTobacco prevention & cessation (p. 10/5/2016)LINKINTRODUCTION: The use of electronic cigarettes or vape devices is increasing, and products are evolving rapidly. This study assessed retail vape shops in the San Francisco Bay Area to describe store characteristics, products offered, advertisements and health claims, as well as employees' perceptions of their customers' demographics, and practices to support smoking cessation. METHODS: We conducted store audits of shops that exclusively sell vape devices with physical addresses in San Francisco and Alameda counties (n=23, response rate 72%) and interviewed vape shop owners/employees. RESULTS: While all stores carried second and third generation vape devices, 83% of stores did not carry first generation devices. Employees estimated the majority of their customers bought devices for smoking cessation or to replace tobacco, and a small minority purchased for first-time recreational use. Employees most frequently recommended dosing nicotine based on usual cigarette consumption, adjusting doses based on throat hit" or cravings" use of a second or third generation e-cigarette
2018A Pragmatic Trial of E-Cigarettes, Incentives, and Drugs for Smoking CessationThe New England journal of medicine (p. 6/14/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: Whether financial incentives, pharmacologic therapies, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) promote smoking cessation among unselected smokers is unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned smokers employed by 54 companies to one of four smoking-cessation interventions or to usual care. Usual care consisted of access to information regarding the benefits of smoking cessation and to a motivational text-messaging service. The four interventions consisted of usual care plus one of the following: free cessation aids (nicotine-replacement therapy or pharmacotherapy, with e-cigarettes if standard therapies failed); free e-cigarettes, without a requirement that standard therapies had been tried; free cessation aids plus $600 in rewards for sustained abstinence; or free cessation aids plus $600 in redeemable funds, deposited in a separate account for each participant, with money removed from the account if cessation milestones were not met. The primary outcome was sustained smoking abstinence for 6 months after the target quit date. RESULTS: Among 6131 smokers who were invited to enroll, 125 opted out and 6006 underwent randomization. Sustained abstinence rates through 6 months were 0.1% in the usual-care group, 0.5% in the free cessation aids group, 1.0% in the free e-cigarettes group, 2.0% in the rewards group, and 2.9% in the redeemable deposit group. With respect to sustained abstinence rates, redeemable deposits and rewards were superior to free cessation aids (P<0.001 and P=0.006, respectively, with significance levels adjusted for multiple comparisons). Redeemable deposits were superior to free e-cigarettes (P=0.008). Free e-cigarettes were not superior to usual care (P=0.20) or to free cessation aids (P=0.43). Among the 1191 employees (19.8%) who actively participated in the trial (the engaged" cohort)" sustained abstinence rates were four to six times as high as those among participants who did not actively engage in the trial
2019A pre-post pilot study of electronic cigarettes to reduce smoking in people with severe mental illnessPsychological medicine (p. 1/4/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: Smoking is the largest single contributor to poor physical health and increased mortality in people with serious mental illnesses. The aim of the study was to investigate the utility of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a harm reduction intervention in this population. METHOD: Fifty tobacco smokers with a psychotic disorder were enrolled onto a 24-week pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02212041) investigating the efficacy of a 6-week free e-cigarette intervention to reduce smoking. Cigarette and e-cigarette use was self-reported at weekly visits, and verified using carbon monoxide tests. Psychopathology, e-cigarette acceptability and adverse effects were assessed using standardised scales. RESULTS: There was a significant (⩾50%) reduction in cigarettes consumed per day between baseline and week 6 [F(2.596,116.800) = 25.878, p < 0.001], and e-cigarette use was stable during this period [F(2.932,46.504) = 2.023, p = 0.115]. These changes were verified by significant carbon monoxide reductions between these time points [F(3.335,126.633) = 5.063, p = 0.002]. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of e-cigarettes is a potentially useful harm reduction intervention in smokers with a psychotic disorder.Tags: (Acceptability; e-cigarette; electronic cigarette; harm reduction; psychosis; schizophrenia; smoking; tobacco)
2019A randomised, open-label, cross-over clinical study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of cigarettes and e-cigarettes with nicotine salt formulations in US adult smokersInternal and emergency medicine (p. 1/9/2019)LINKE-cigarettes containing 'nicotine salts' aim to increase smoker's satisfaction by improving blood nicotine delivery and other sensory properties. Here, we evaluated the pharmacokinetic profiles and subjective effects of nicotine from two e-cigarette device platforms with varying concentrations of nicotine lactate (nicotine salt) e-liquid relative to conventional cigarettes. A randomised, open-label, cross-over clinical study was conducted in 15 healthy US adult smokers. Five different e-cigarette products were evaluated consecutively on different days after use of own brand conventional cigarette. Plasma nicotine pharmacokinetics, subjective effects, and tolerability were assessed following controlled use of the products. The rate of nicotine absorption into the bloodstream was comparable from all e-cigarettes tested and was as rapid as that for conventional cigarette. However, in all cases, nicotine delivery did not exceed that of the conventional cigarette. The pharmacokinetic profiles of nicotine salt emissions were also dependent upon the properties of the e-cigarette device. Subjective scores were numerically highest after smoking a conventional cigarette followed by the myblu 40-mg nicotine salt formulation. The rise in nicotine blood levels following use of all the tested e-cigarettes was quantified as 'a little' to 'modestly' satisfying at relieving the desire to smoke. All products were well tolerated with no notable adverse events reported. These results demonstrate that, while delivering less nicotine than a conventional cigarette, the use of nicotine salts in e-cigarettes enables cigarette-like pulmonary delivery of nicotine that reduces desire to smoke.Tags: (Conventional cigarette; E-cigarette; Electronic cigarette; Nicotine delivery; Nicotine lactate; Nicotine salt; Pharmacokinetics)
2019A Randomized Trial of E-Cigarettes versus Nicotine-Replacement TherapyThe New England journal of medicine (p. 2/14/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: E-cigarettes are commonly used in attempts to stop smoking, but evidence is limited regarding their effectiveness as compared with that of nicotine products approved as smoking-cessation treatments. METHODS: We randomly assigned adults attending U.K. National Health Service stop-smoking services to either nicotine-replacement products of their choice, including product combinations, provided for up to 3 months, or an e-cigarette starter pack (a second-generation refillable e-cigarette with one bottle of nicotine e-liquid [18 mg per milliliter]), with a recommendation to purchase further e-liquids of the flavor and strength of their choice. Treatment included weekly behavioral support for at least 4 weeks. The primary outcome was sustained abstinence for 1 year, which was validated biochemically at the final visit. Participants who were lost to follow-up or did not provide biochemical validation were considered to not be abstinent. Secondary outcomes included participant-reported treatment usage and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 886 participants underwent randomization. The 1-year abstinence rate was 18.0% in the e-cigarette group, as compared with 9.9% in the nicotine-replacement group (relative risk, 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30 to 2.58; P<0.001). Among participants with 1-year abstinence, those in the e-cigarette group were more likely than those in the nicotine-replacement group to use their assigned product at 52 weeks (80% [63 of 79 participants] vs. 9% [4 of 44 participants]). Overall, throat or mouth irritation was reported more frequently in the e-cigarette group (65.3%, vs. 51.2% in the nicotine-replacement group) and nausea more frequently in the nicotine-replacement group (37.9%, vs. 31.3% in the e-cigarette group). The e-cigarette group reported greater declines in the incidence of cough and phlegm production from baseline to 52 weeks than did the nicotine-replacement group (relative risk for cough, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.9; relative risk for phlegm, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6 to 0.9). There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of wheezing or shortness of breath. CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarettes were more effective for smoking cessation than nicotine-replacement therapy, when both products were accompanied by behavioral support. (Funded by the National Institute for Health Research and Cancer Research UK; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN60477608 .).
2018A Randomized Trial of the Effect of Youth Appealing E-Cigarette Advertising on Susceptibility to Use E-Cigarettes Among YouthNicotine & tobacco research (p. 7/9/2018)LINKIntroduction: Very little is known about how e-cigarette marketing is being perceived by youth, and the potential effect it will have on youth vaping and smoking behaviors. This limits the ability to identify youth-focused marketing efforts and to design effective policies for the regulation of e-cigarette marketing content and placement. Methods: A sample of 417 nonsmoking youth (mean age = 15, SD = 1.3) were randomly assigned to either view four e-cigarette ads with low youth appeal, four e-cigarette ads with high youth appeal or four control ads. After exposure, participants completed covert and overt measurements of e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette attitudes and susceptibility to use. Results: Youth in an e-cigarette ad condition were more likely to select an e-cigarette item in a product choice task compared to control, and had more positive e-cigarette beliefs. Contrary to hypotheses, youth in the low youth appeal condition reported greater susceptibility to trying e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes compared to control. Conclusions: Exposure to any e-cigarette advertising may play a role in teens' decision to initiate e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette use. As the Food and Drug Administration now has regulatory authority over the marketing of e-cigarettes, regulations on e-cigarette advertising are suggested. Implications: Teens are increasingly being exposed to e-cigarette advertising, and many places are considering e-cigarette regulations, yet we know very little about how e-cigarette advertisements might influence youth tobacco use. This study utilized a novel dataset of e-cigarette ads coded for youth appeal and presented them to a sample of 417 nonsmoking teens in a randomized controlled design to test the effect of features on youth susceptibility to initiating e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette use. The findings inform evidence-based recommendations for regulating the marketing of e-cigarettes.
2015A rapid method for the chromatographic analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath of tobacco cigarette and electronic cigarette smokersJournal of chromatography. A (p. 9/4/2015)LINKA method for the rapid analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in smoke from tobacco and electronic cigarettes and in exhaled breath of users of these smoking systems has been developed. Both disposable and rechargeable e-cigarettes were considered. Smoke or breath were collected in Bio-VOCs. VOCs were then desorbed in Tenax cartridges which were subsequently analyzed by thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method provides consistent results when comparing the VOC compositions from cigarette smoke and the equivalent exhaled breath of the smokers. The differences in composition of these two sample types are useful to ascertain which compounds are retained in the respiratory system after tobacco cigarette or e-cigarette smoking. Strong differences were observed in the VOC composition of tobacco cigarette smoke and exhaled breath when comparing with those of e-cigarette smoking. The former involved transfers of a much larger burden of organic compounds into smokers, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene and other pollutants of general concern. e-Cigarettes led to strong absorptions of propylene glycol and glycerin in the users of these systems. Tobacco cigarettes were also those showing highest concentration differences between nicotine concentrations in smoke and exhaled breath. The results from disposable e-cigarettes were very similar to those from rechargeable e-cigarettes.Tags: (Electronic cigarettes; Exhaled breath; Nicotine; Thermal desorption; Tobacco; Volatile organic compounds)
2015A review of the current geographic distribution of and debate surrounding electronic cigarette clean air regulations in the United StatesHealth & place (p. 1/1/2015)LINKIn this article, we present the results of a systematic review of state, county, and municipal restrictions on the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in public spaces within the United States, alongside an overview of the current legal landscape. The lack of federal guidance leaves lower-level jurisdictions to debate the merits of restrictions on use in public spaces without sufficient scientific research. As we show through a geographic assessment of restrictions, this has resulted in an inconsistent patchwork of e-cigarette use bans across the United States of varying degrees of coverage. Bans have emerged over time in a manner that suggests a bottom up" diffusion of e-cigarette clean air policies. Ultimately" the lack of clinical and scientific knowledge on the risks and potential harm reduction benefits has led to precautionary policymaking
2014A systematic review of health effects of electronic cigarettesPreventive medicine (p. 1/12/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: To provide a systematic review of the existing literature on health consequences of vaporing of electronic cigarettes (ECs). METHODS: Search in: PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Original publications describing a health-related topic, published before 14 August 2014. PRISMA recommendations were followed. We identified 1101 studies; 271 relevant after screening; 94 eligible. RESULTS: We included 76 studies investigating content of fluid/vapor of ECs, reports on adverse events and human and animal experimental studies. Serious methodological problems were identified. In 34% of the articles the authors had a conflict of interest. Studies found fine/ultrafine particles, harmful metals, carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines, volatile organic compounds, carcinogenic carbonyls (some in high but most in low/trace concentrations), cytotoxicity and changed gene expression. Of special concern are compounds not found in conventional cigarettes, e.g. propylene glycol. Experimental studies found increased airway resistance after short-term exposure. Reports on short-term adverse events were often flawed by selection bias. CONCLUSIONS: Due to many methodological problems, severe conflicts of interest, the relatively few and often small studies, the inconsistencies and contradictions in results, and the lack of long-term follow-up no firm conclusions can be drawn on the safety of ECs. However, they can hardly be considered harmless.Tags: (E-cigarette; ENDS; Electronic cigarette; Electronic nicotine delivery device; Electronic nicotine delivery system)
2013A toxicological review of the propylene glycolsCritical reviews in toxicology (p. 1/4/2013)LINKThe toxicological profiles of monopropylene glycol (MPG), dipropylene glycol (DPG), tripropylene glycol (TPG) and polypropylene glycols (PPG; including tetra-rich oligomers) are collectively reviewed, and assessed considering regulatory toxicology endpoints. The review confirms a rich data set for these compounds, covering all of the major toxicological endpoints of interest. The metabolism of these compounds share common pathways, and a consistent profile of toxicity is observed. The common metabolism provides scientific justification for adopting a read-across approach to describing expected hazard potential from data gaps that may exist for specific oligomers. None of the glycols reviewed presented evidence of carcinogenic, mutagenic or reproductive/developmental toxicity potential to humans. The pathologies reported in some animal studies either occurred at doses that exceeded experimental guidelines, or involved mechanisms that are likely irrelevant to human physiology and therefore are not pertinent to the exposures experienced by consumers or workers. At very high chronic doses, MPG causes a transient, slight decrease in hemoglobin in dogs and at somewhat lower doses causes Heinz bodies to form in cats in the absence of any clinical signs of anemia. Some evidence for rare, idiosyncratic skin reactions exists for MPG. However, the larger data set indicates that these compounds have low sensitization potential in animal studies, and therefore are unlikely to represent human allergens. The existing safety evaluations of the FDA, USEPA, NTP and ATSDR for these compounds are consistent and point to the conclusion that the propylene glycols present a very low risk to human health.
2016A transdisciplinary model to inform randomized clinical trial methods for electronic cigarette evaluationBMC public health (p. 3/3/2016)LINKBACKGROUND: This study is a systematic evaluation of a novel tobacco product, electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) using a two-site, four-arm, 6-month, parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a follow-up to 9 months. Virginia Commonwealth University is the primary site and Penn State University is the secondary site. This RCT design is important because it is informed by analytical work, clinical laboratory results, and qualitative/quantitative findings regarding the specific ECIG products used. METHODS: Participants (N = 520) will be randomized across sites and must be healthy smokers of >9 cigarettes for at least one year, who have not had a quit attempt in the prior month, are not planning to quit in the next 6 months, and are interested in reducing cigarette intake. Participants will be randomized into one of four 24-week conditions: a cigarette substitute that does not produce an inhalable aerosol; or one of three ECIG conditions that differ by nicotine concentration 0, 8, or 36 mg/ml. Blocked randomization will be accomplished with a 1:1:1:1 ratio of condition assignments at each site. Specific aims are to: characterize ECIG influence on toxicants, biomarkers, health indicators, and disease risk; determine tobacco abstinence symptom and adverse event profile associated with real-world ECIG use; and examine the influence of ECIG use on conventional tobacco product use. Liquid nicotine concentration-related differences on these study outcomes are predicted. Participants and research staff in contact with participants will be blinded to the nicotine concentration in the ECIG conditions. DISCUSSION: Results from this study will inform knowledge concerning ECIG use as well as demonstrate a model that may be applied to other novel tobacco products. The model of using prior empirical testing of ECIG devices should be considered in other RCT evaluations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: TRN: NCT02342795 , registered December 16, 2014.
2014Abstract B16: The effect of e-cigarette exposure on airway epithelial cell gene expression and transformationClinical cancer research (p. 1/15/2014)LINKLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Despite a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and the onset of lung cancer, the prevalence of smoking still remains high. Strategies to eliminate cigarette smoking have led to the emergence of new tobacco-related products as alternatives for cigarette smoking or tools for smoking cessation. The electronic cigarette (ECIG) is a battery-powered electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) designed to deliver nicotine without combusting tobacco. Since nicotine is widely considered the addictive component in tobacco with limited ability to initiate cancer, ECIGs have been advertised to be a safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes (TCIGs). However, the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of ECIGs have not previously been evaluated. In this study, we assess the impact of ECIG exposure on the carcinogenic potential of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells on a background of silenced p53 and activated KRAS (H3mut-P53/KRAS). This model is utilized because p53 and KRAS mutations are often observed in the airway of current and former smokers at risk for lung cancer. The epithelial cells were exposed to both a low and high concentration of nicotine in the ECIG vapor- or TCIG smoke-conditioned media. The lower nicotine concentration was selected to mimic the average plasma nicotine levels in ENDS users and did not demonstrate toxic or anti-proliferative effects on the cells. The higher concentration was chosen to represent the anticipated nicotine levels to which the epithelial cells of smokers are actually exposed. In anchorage independent growth assays, the in vitro correlate of malignant transformation, we found enhanced colony growth in the H3mut-P53/KRAS cells following a 10-day treatment with the high nicotine ECIG- and TCIG-conditioned media compared to the untreated and low nicotine treatment groups. We next assessed the effect of ECIG and TCIG exposure on cell invasion using a three-dimensional air-liquid interface (ALI) model. At baseline, H3mut-P53/KRAS cells exhibit invasive behavior in the ALI model, due to the downstream effects of P53 silencing and KRAS activation. Treatment of H3mut-P53/KRAS cells with low nicotine ECIG- and TCIG-conditioned media did not further enhance the degree of invasion observed in the untreated group. We will next examine the effects of high nicotine conditioned media on cell invasion. Finally, gene expression studies show 263 differentially expressed genes following in vitro exposure to ECIG-conditioned media for 96hrs. The high nicotine ECIG-conditioned media induced a gene expression pattern similar to TCIG- conditioned media and whole cigarette smoke exposure in the H3mut-P53/KRAS cells. Preliminary analyses indicate the observed ECIG-specific gene expression changes were concordantly changed following TCIG-conditioned media exposure. We will next compare the ECIG-induced gene expression signature to carcinogenicity-related gene signatures established in previous and ongoing clinical investigations and test ECIG-altered candidate genes for their ability to drive the malignant transformation of airway epithelial cells. These studies will determine the impact of ECIG exposure on lung carcinogenicity and provide needed scientific guidance to the FDA regarding the physiologic effects of ECIGs.These studies were supported by funding from the following: NIH/NCI #U01CA152751 (SMD, TCW), NCI #U01CA152751-S1 (SMD, TCW, SJP), NCI #U01CA152751-AS (SMD, KK), NCI #T32-CA009120-36 (SMD, SJP, PCP), NIH/NHLBI #T32HL072752 (SMD, EL), University of California Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (TRDRP) #18FT-0060 (TCW), TRDRP #20KT-0055 (TCW), Lung Cancer SPORE P50CA70907 (JDM, JEL)Citation Format: Stacy J. Park, Tonya C. Walser, Catalina Perdomo, Teresa Wang, Paul C. Pagano, Elvira L. Liclican, Kostyantyn Krysan, Jill E. Larsen, John D. Minna, Marc E. Lenburg, Avrum Spira, Steven M. Dubinett. The effect of e-cigarette exposure on airway epithelial cell gene expression and transformation. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR-IASLC Joint Conference on Molecular Origins of Lung Cancer; 2014 Jan 6-9; San Diego, CA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Clin Cancer Res 2014;20(2Suppl):Abstract nr B16.
2014Achieving appropriate regulations for electronic cigarettesTherapeutic advances in chronic disease (p. 1/3/2014)LINKA growing body of scientific studies show that e-cigarettes may serve as an acceptable substitute for smoking tobacco cigarettes, thereby reducing or eliminating exposure to harmful elements in smoke. The success of e-cigarettes is such that sales of these products are rapidly gaining on traditional cigarettes. The rapidly evolving phenomenon is raising concerns for the health community, pharmaceutical industry, health regulators and state governments. Obviously, these products need to be adequately regulated, primarily to protect users. Depending on the form and intended scope, certain regulatory decisions may have diverse unintended consequences on public health and may face many different challenges. Ideally, before any regulations are enacted, the regulatory body will require sufficient scientific research to verify that a problem does exist, quantify the problem, explore all potential solutions including making no change at all, determine the possible consequences of each, and then select the solution that is best for public health. Here we present an overview on the existing and deeming regulatory decisions for electronic cigarettes. We challenge them, based on the mounting scientific evidence with the ultimate goal of proposing appropriate recommendations while minimizing potential unintended consequences of ill-informed regulation.Tags: (cigarette smoking; electronic cigarettes; nicotine use; regulation; regulatory agencies; tobacco harm reduction)
2012Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood countFood and chemical toxicology (p. 1/10/2012)LINKThe World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05). It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably.
2019Acute Effects of Heat-Not-Burn, Electronic Vaping, and Traditional Tobacco Combustion Cigarettes: The Sapienza University of Rome-Vascular Assessment of Proatherosclerotic Effects of Smoking ( SUR - VAPES ) 2 Randomized TrialJournal of the American Heart Association (p. 3/19/2019)LINKBackground Little clinical research on new-generation heat-not-burn cigarettes ( HNBC ) in comparison with electronic vaping cigarettes ( EVC ) and traditional tobacco combustion cigarettes ( TC ) has been reported. We aimed to appraise the acute effects of single use of HNBC , EVC, and TC in healthy smokers. Methods and Results This was an independent, cross-over, randomized trial in 20 TC smokers, with allocation to different cycles of HNBC , EVC , and TC . All participants used all types of products, with an intercycle washout of 1 week. End points were oxidative stress, antioxidant reserve, platelet activation, flow-mediated dilation, blood pressure, and satisfaction scores. Single use of any product led to an adverse impact on oxidative stress, antioxidant reserve, platelet function, flow-mediated dilation, and blood pressure. HNBC had less impact than EVC and TC on soluble Nox2-derived peptide (respectively, P=0.004 and 0.001), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α- III ( P=0.004 and <0.001), and vitamin E ( P=0.018 and 0.044). HNBC and EVC were equally less impactful than TCs on flow-mediated dilation ( P=0.872 for HNBC versus EVC ), H2O2 ( P=0.522), H2O2 breakdown activity ( P=0.091), soluble CD 40 ligand ( P=0.849), and soluble P-selectin ( P=0.821). The effect of HNBC and, to a lesser extent EVC , on blood pressure was less evident than that of TC , whereas HNBC appeared more satisfying than EVC (all P<0.05). Conclusions Acute effects of HNBC , EVC, and TC are different on several oxidative stress, antioxidant reserve, platelet function, cardiovascular, and satisfaction dimensions, with TCs showing the most detrimental changes in clinically relevant features. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 03301129.Tags: (flow‐induced dilation; oxidative stress; platelet; platelet aggregation; smoking)
2018Acute effects of inhaled menthol on the rewarding effects of intravenous nicotine in smokersJournal of psychopharmacology (p. 1/9/2018)LINKOBJECTIVE: This double-blind, placebo controlled study examined whether menthol inhaled from an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) would change subjective and withdrawal alleviating effects of intravenous nicotine in young adult smokers. METHODS: A total of 32 menthol-preferring smokers and 25 non-menthol-preferring smokers participated in the study that consisted of a random sequence of three different inhaled menthol conditions (0.0%, 0.5%, and 3.2%) across three test sessions (a single menthol condition per session). In each test session (performed at least 24 hours apart), a random order of saline, and two different nicotine infusions of 0.25 mg and 0.5 mg/70 kg of bodyweight were administered, one hour apart, concurrent with menthol inhalation. RESULTS: While menthol did not alter the positive subjective effects of nicotine, menthol significantly enhanced aversive effects of nicotine in non-menthol-preferring smokers and reduced smoking urges in menthol-preferring smokers. In addition, menthol-preferring smokers reported blunted positive subjective responses to nicotine and less severe nicotine withdrawal after overnight nicotine deprivation. Finally, compared to non-menthol-preferring smokers, menthol-preferring smokers had a significantly lower baseline nicotine metabolite ratio indicating slower nicotine metabolism within our sample of menthol-preferring smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings did not support an enhancement of nicotine's positive subjective effects from inhaled menthol. However, as compared to non-menthol-preferring smokers, menthol-preferring smokers had blunted positive subjective responses to nicotine and reduced overnight withdrawal severity that may be partly due to inhibition of nicotine metabolism from chronic exposure to inhaled menthol. Collectively, these results reveal a more complex and nuanced role of inhaled menthol in smokers than previously recognized.Tags: (Menthol; nicotine; nicotine metabolite ratio; reinforcement; smoking)
2018Acute Effects of Smoked and Vaporized Cannabis in Healthy Adults Who Infrequently Use Cannabis: A Crossover TrialJAMA network open (p. 11/2/2018)LINKImportance: Vaporization is an increasingly popular method for cannabis administration, and policy changes have increased adult access to cannabis drastically. Controlled examinations of cannabis vaporization among adults with infrequent current cannabis use patterns (>30 days since last use) are needed. Objective: To evaluate the acute dose effects of smoked and vaporized cannabis using controlled administration methods. Design, Setting, and Participants: This within-participant, double-blind, crossover study was conducted from June 2016 to January 2017 at the Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and included 17 healthy adults. Six smoked and vaporized outpatient experimental sessions (1-week washout between sessions) were completed in clusters (order counterbalanced across participants); dose order was randomized within each cluster. Interventions: Cannabis containing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) doses of 0 mg, 10 mg, and 25 mg was vaporized and smoked by each participant. Main Outcomes and Measures: Change from baseline scores for subjective drug effects, cognitive and psychomotor performance, vital signs, and blood THC concentration. Results: The sample included 17 healthy adults (mean [SD] age, 27.3 [5.7] years; 9 men and 8 women) with no cannabis use in the prior month (mean [SD] days since last cannabis use, 398 [437] days). Inhalation of cannabis containing 10 mg of THC produced discriminative drug effects (mean [SD] ratings on a 100-point visual analog scale, smoked: 46 [26]; vaporized: 69 [26]) and modest impairment of cognitive functioning. The 25-mg dose produced significant drug effects (mean [SD] ratings, smoked: 66 [29]; vaporized: 78 [24]), increased incidence of adverse effects, and pronounced impairment of cognitive and psychomotor ability (eg, significant decreased task performance compared with placebo in vaporized conditions). Vaporized cannabis resulted in qualitatively stronger drug effects for most pharmacodynamic outcomes and higher peak concentrations of THC in blood, compared with equal doses of smoked cannabis (25-mg dose: smoked, 10.2 ng/mL; vaporized, 14.4 ng/mL). Blood THC concentrations and heart rate peaked within 30 minutes after cannabis administration and returned to baseline within 3 to 4 hours. Several subjective drug effects and observed cognitive and psychomotor impairments persisted for up to 6 hours on average. Conclusions and Relevance: Vaporized and smoked cannabis produced dose-orderly drug effects, which were stronger when vaporized. These data can inform regulatory and clinical decisions surrounding the use of cannabis among adults with little or no prior cannabis exposure. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03676166.
2014Acute effects of using an electronic nicotine-delivery device (electronic cigarette) on myocardial function: comparison with the effects of regular cigarettesBMC cardiovascular disorders (p. 6/23/2014)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes have been developed and marketed in recent years as smoking substitutes. However, no studies have evaluated their effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of electronic cigarette use on left ventricular (LV) function, compared to the well-documented acute adverse effects of smoking. METHODS: Echocardiographic examinations were performed in 36 healthy heavy smokers (SM, age 36 ± 5 years) before and after smoking 1 cigarette and in 40 electronic cigarette users (ECIG, age 35 ± 5 years) before and after using the device with medium-strength" nicotine concentration (11 mg/ml) for 7 minutes. Mitral flow diastolic velocities (E"
2014Acute electronic cigarette use: nicotine delivery and subjective effects in regular usersPsychopharmacology (p. 1/1/2014)LINKRATIONALE: Electronic cigarettes are becoming increasingly popular among smokers worldwide. Commonly reported reasons for use include the following: to quit smoking, to avoid relapse, to reduce urge to smoke, or as a perceived lower-risk alternative to smoking. Few studies, however, have explored whether electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) deliver measurable levels of nicotine to the blood. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore in experienced users the effect of using an 18-mg/ml nicotine first-generation e-cigarette on blood nicotine, tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and urge to smoke. METHODS: Fourteen regular e-cigarette users (three females), who are abstinent from smoking and e-cigarette use for 12 h, each completed a 2.5 h testing session. Blood was sampled, and questionnaires were completed (tobacco-related withdrawal symptoms, urge to smoke, positive and negative subjective effects) at four stages: baseline, 10 puffs, 60 min of ad lib use and a 60-min rest period. RESULTS: Complete sets of blood were obtained from seven participants. Plasma nicotine concentration rose significantly from a mean of 0.74 ng/ml at baseline to 6.77 ng/ml 10 min after 10 puffs, reaching a mean maximum of 13.91 ng/ml by the end of the ad lib puffing period. Tobacco-related withdrawal symptoms and urge to smoke were significantly reduced; direct positive effects were strongly endorsed, and there was very low reporting of adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate reliable blood nicotine delivery after the acute use of this brand/model of e-cigarette in a sample of regular users. Future studies might usefully quantify nicotine delivery in relation to inhalation technique and the relationship with successful smoking cessation/harm reduction.
2013Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung functionInhalation toxicology (p. 1/2/2013)LINKCONTEXT: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular yet their effects on health remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To conduct the first comprehensive and standardized assessment of the acute impact of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function, as compared to active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen smokers (≥15 cigarettes/day; seven females; eight males) and 15 never-smokers (seven females; eight males) completed this repeated-measures controlled study. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette (their favorite brand) smoking session and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. Serum cotinine, lung function, exhaled carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were assessed. The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.001 to adjust for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: e-Cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes generated similar (p > 0.001) effects on serum cotinine levels after active (60.6 ± 34.3 versus 61.3 ± 36.6 ng/ml) and passive (2.4 ± 0.9 versus 2.6 ± 0.6 ng/ml) smoking. Neither a brief session of active e-cigarette smoking (indicative: 3% reduction in FEV1/FVC) nor a 1 h passive e-cigarette smoking (indicative: 2.3% reduction in FEV1/FVC) significantly affected the lung function (p > 0.001). In contrast, active (indicative: 7.2% reduction in FEV1/FVC; p < 0.001) but not passive (indicative: 3.4% reduction in FEV1/FVC; p = 0.005) tobacco cigarette smoking undermined lung function. CONCLUSION: Regarding short-term usage, the studied e-cigarettes generate smaller changes in lung function but similar nicotinergic impact to tobacco cigarettes. Future research should target the health effects of long-term e-cigarette usage, including the effects of nicotine dosage.
2013Adolescent males' awareness of and willingness to try electronic cigarettesThe Journal of adolescent health (p. 1/2/2013)LINKPURPOSE: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a new type of device that delivers vaporized nicotine without the tobacco combustion of regular cigarettes. We sought to understand awareness of and willingness to try e-cigarettes among adolescent males, a group that is at risk for smoking initiation and may use e-cigarettes as a gateway" to smoking. METHODS: A national sample of 11-19-year-old males (n = 228) completed an online survey in November 2011. We recruited participants through their parents" who were members of a panel of U.S. households constructed using random-digit dialing and addressed-based sampling. RESULTS: Only two participants (< 1%) had previously tried e-cigarettes. Among those who had not tried e-cigarettes
2019Adolescent males' responses to blu's fake warningsTobacco control (p. 1/12/2019)LINKOBJECTIVE: Blu's 'Something Better' advertising campaign ran in popular print magazines in 2017. The campaign included advertisements with fake warnings conveying positive messages, which mimicked the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s warning requirements for electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements that took effect in 2018. We report adolescent males' recall of these fake warnings and how exposure to fake warnings affected recall of other advertisement components, including the actual warning or health risks, brand and product. METHODS: Ohio males ages 12-19 years (N = 775; 73.8 % white non-Hispanic) were randomly assigned to view an e-cigarette advertisement with or without a fake warning. Afterward, they were asked what they remembered most about the advertisement. Responses were qualitatively coded. Statistical analyses included survey-weighted descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of participants who viewed an e-cigarette advertisement with a fake warning, 27.0 % reported the fake warning was what they remembered most, and 18.8 % repeated the fake warning message. Participants viewing advertisements with a fake warning had lower odds of recalling the actual warning or health risks (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.77) or brand (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.85), compared with participants viewing other e-cigarette advertisements. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents viewing an advertisement with a fake warning were less likely to recall the advertisement's actual warning or health risks. Although e-cigarette advertisements now carry large FDA-mandated warnings, this tactic could be used for cigarette advertisements that continue to carry small warnings in the USA. Findings underscore the necessity of tobacco advertisement surveillance and study of advertisements' effects on adolescents.Tags: (advertising and promotion; electronic nicotine delivery devices; tobacco industry)
2015Adolescents' Perceptions of Risks and Benefits of Conventional Cigarettes, E-cigarettes, and Marijuana: A Qualitative AnalysisThe Journal of adolescent health (p. 1/8/2015)LINKPURPOSE: Although rates of adolescent cigarette use have remained constant or decreased, rates of marijuana and e-cigarette use are rising. Knowledge and perceptions of risks and benefits of tobacco products impact adolescents' decisions to use these products. However, little is known regarding adolescents' knowledge and perceptions of risks of e-cigarettes and marijuana nor how these perceptions are formed. This study uses qualitative techniques to assess and compare adolescents' perceptions of the risks and benefits of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and marijuana. METHODS: Twenty-four adolescents (nine females and 15 males) from Northern California participated in six small-group discussions. Adolescents were asked what good or bad things might happen from using these products. To assess how perceptions and knowledge of risks and benefits were formed, participants were asked where and from whom they had learned about these products. RESULTS: Adolescents described negative consequences of cigarette use but were much less sure regarding risks of marijuana and e-cigarette use. Conversely, they described few benefits of cigarettes but described a number of benefits of e-cigarette and marijuana use. Adolescents described learning about these products from the media, from family and friends, and from the school environment. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents have learned from multiple sources about risks of using cigarettes, but they receive much less and often incorrect information regarding marijuana and e-cigarettes, likely resulting in their positive and often ambivalent perceptions of marijuana and e-cigarettes.Tags: (E-cigarettes; Qualitative research; Risk perceptions; Substance use; Tobacco)
2017Adult smoking habits in the UK - Office for National Statistics(p. 6/14/201)LINKData using the Annual Population Survey for UK and Opinions and Lifestyle Survey for Great Britain. Smoking prevalence by age and sex, daily cigarette consumption and smokers who have quit. Also e-cigarette use and vaping.
2014Adverse effects of e-cigarette exposuresJournal of community health (p. 1/6/2014)LINKIn 2007, a new source of nicotine exposure was introduced to the United States market, the electronic cigarette (ECIG) or e-cigarette". Since then the USA ECIG market has been doubling annually. Despite their widespread popularity
2015Aerosol deposition doses in the human respiratory tree of electronic cigarette smokersEnvironmental pollution (p. 1/1/2015)LINKAerosols from eight e-cigarettes at different nicotine levels and flavoring were characterized as particle number size distributions in the range 5.6-560 nm by FMPS and CPC. Results were used to provided osimetry estimates applying the MMPD model.Particle number concentrations varied between 3.26 x 10(9) and 4.09 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids without nicotine and between 5.08 x 10(9) and 5.29 x 10(9) part cm(-3) for e-liquids with nicotine. No flavor effects were detected on particle concentration data. Particle size distributions were unimodal with modes between 107-165 nm and 165-255 nm, for number and volume metrics, respectively. Averagely, 6.25 x 10(10) particles were deposited in respiratory tree after a single puff. Highest deposition densities and mean layer thickness of e-cigarette liquid on the lung epithelium were estimated at lobar bronchi. Our study shows that e-cigarette aerosol is source of high particle dose in respiratory system, from 23%to 35% of the daily dose of a no-smoking individual.
2015Alarmist survey on teenage vaping misses the point reaction(p. 3/31/201)LINKThe BBC, Guardian, Telegraph and others report on a new study, Associations between e-cigarette access and smoking and drinking behaviours in teenagers, that “showed one in five had tried or…
2017Aldehyde Detection in Electronic Cigarette AerosolsACS omega (p. 3/31/2017)LINKAcetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde are the principal toxic aldehydes present in cigarette smoke and contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease and noncancerous pulmonary disease. The rapid growth of the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has raised concerns over emissions of these harmful aldehydes. This work determines emissions of these aldehydes in both free and bound (aldehyde-hemiacetal) forms and other carbonyls from the use of e-cigarettes. A novel silicon microreactor with a coating phase of 4-(2-aminooxyethyl)-morpholin-4-ium chloride (AMAH) was used to trap carbonyl compounds in the aerosols of e-cigarettes via oximation reactions. AMAH-aldehyde adducts were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to analyze hemiacetals in the aerosols. These aldehydes were detected in the aerosols of all e-cigarettes. Newer-generation e-cigarette devices generated more aldehydes than the first-generation e-cigarettes because of higher battery power output. Formaldehyde-hemiacetal was detected in the aerosols generated from some e-liquids using the newer e-cigarette devices at a battery power output of 11.7 W and above. The emission of these aldehydes from all e-cigarettes, especially higher levels of aldehydes from the newer-generation e-cigarette devices, indicates the risk of using e-cigarettes.
2019Allen Carr's Easyway to Stop Smoking - A randomised clinical trialTobacco control (p. 1/7/2019)LINKOBJECTIVE: To determine if Allen Carr's Easyway to Stop Smoking (AC) was superior to Quit.ie in a randomised clinical trial (RCT). SETTING: Single centre, open RCT, general population based. PARTICIPANTS: 300 adult smokers, 18 years plus, minimum 5 cigarettes daily, and English speaking. AC, 151 (females 44.4%) and Quit.ie, 149 (females 45.6%), mean age 44 years. outcomes for all 300 were analysed (intention-to-treat). Recruited through advertisement from July 2015 to February 2016. INTERVENTION: Randomly assigned to AC (n=151) and Quit.ie (n=149), matched for age, sex and education. Block randomisation, enrolment and follow-up at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary aim was to determine if AC had higher quit rates than Quit.ie service at 3 months. Secondary aims: quit rates at 1, 6 and 12 months and analysis of associated factors including weight. AC consisted of a 5-hour seminar, in a group setting. Quit.ie is an online portal for smoking cessation. RESULTS: AC had higher quit rates at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. AC: 38%, (n=57), 27% (n=40), 23% (n=35), 22% (n=33) vs Quit.ie: 20% (n=30), 15% (n=22), 15% (n=23), 11% (n=17), respectively (all p values <0.05). Logistic regression AC vs Quit.ie, OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.22 to 4.21) p value=0.01. Weight gain 3.8 kg in AC vs 1.8 kg in Quit.ie (p value <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: All AC quit rates were superior to Quit.ie, outcomes were comparable with established interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN12951013. Recruitment July 2015-February 2016.Tags: (Addiction; Cessation; Health Services; Nicotine)
2018Altered lung biology of healthy never smokers following acute inhalation of E-cigarettesRespiratory research (p. 5/14/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: Little is known about health risks associated with electronic cigarette (EC) use although EC are rising in popularity and have been advocated as a means to quit smoking cigarettes. METHODS: Ten never-smokers, without exposure history to tobacco products or EC, were assessed at baseline with questionnaire, chest X-ray, lung function, plasma levels of endothelial microparticles (EMP), and bronchoscopy to obtain small airway epithelium (SAE) and alveolar macrophages (AM). One week later, subjects inhaled 10 puffs of Blu" brand EC" waited 30 min
2013Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation: a national studyAmerican journal of public health (p. 1/5/2013)LINKOBJECTIVES: We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. METHODS: A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. RESULTS: Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited.
2015An Assessment of Indoor Air Quality before, during and after Unrestricted Use of E-Cigarettes in a Small RoomInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 5/6/2015)LINKAirborne chemicals in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as burning fuels and cooking, construction materials and furniture, environmental tobacco smoke as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol to the pre-existing chemicals in the ambient air, an indoor air quality study was conducted to measure volatile organic compounds (including nicotine and low molecular weight carbonyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and trace metal levels in the air before, during and after e-cigarette use in a typical small office meeting room. Measurements were compared with human Health Criteria Values, such as indoor air quality guidelines or workplace exposure limits where established, to provide a context for potential bystander exposures. In this study, the data suggest that any additional chemicals present in indoor air from the exhaled e-cigarette aerosol, are unlikely to present an air quality issue to bystanders at the levels measured when compared to the regulatory standards that are used for workplaces or general indoor air quality.
2011ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC CIGARETTE CARTRIDGES, REFILL SOLUTIONS, AND SMOKE FOR NICOTINE AND NICOTINE RELATED IMPURITIESJournal of liquid chromatography & related technologies (p. 8/15/2011)LINKThe objective of this study was to determine nicotine and the nicotine related impurities, that is, cotinine, myosmine, anatabine, anabasine, and ?-nicotyrine, in electronic cigarette cartridges, the liquid used to fill the cartridges, and from smoke generated using the electronic cigarette devices. An HPLC method was validated for the determination. Samples of nicotine containing products were purchased via the internet from NJOY, Smoking Everywhere, CIXI, and Johnson Creek. Electronic cigarette devices were purchased from NJOY, Smoking Everywhere, and CIXI. The results from the testing found that (1) the nicotine content labeling was not accurate with some manufacturers, (2) nicotine is present in the ?smoke? from electronic cigarettes, and (3) nicotine related impurities contents in cartridges and refills were found to vary by electronic cigarette manufacturer.
2015Are e-cigarettes a gateway to smoking or a pathway to quitting?British dental journal (p. 8/14/2015)LINKOver recent years there has been a massive increase in the usage of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) by the general public. There are mixed views regarding the safety and efficacy of e-cigs, even among healthcare professionals. While some individuals view e-cigs as a public health concern, others recommend them as a safe alternative to conventional cigarettes for smokers who are willing to quit. Since e-cigs are a new phenomena, many clinicians are unaware of their impact on users (known as vapers), who may seek medical advice regarding their use. This clinical review aims to educate healthcare professionals regarding the advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarettes and to discuss whether e-cigarettes help users quit smoking or whether they renormalise smoking. This article will describe the contents of e-cigs and how they are used, the history, advantages, disadvantages and then balance the positive and negative aspects of their use. Due to the lack of long-term follow up of the health effects of e-cigarettes, caution is advised with their use.
2015Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (p. 1/3/2015)LINKElectronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes.Tags: (cigarette smoking; electronic cigarette; nicotine; smoking cessation)
2019Are Electronic Cigarettes an Effective Aid to Smoking Cessation or Reduction Among Vulnerable Groups? A Systematic Review of Quantitative and Qualitative EvidenceNicotine & tobacco research (p. 4/17/2019)LINKINTRODUCTION: Smoking prevalence remains high in some vulnerable groups, including those who misuse substances, have a mental illness, are homeless, or are involved with the criminal justice system. E-cigarette use is increasing and may support smoking cessation/reduction. METHODS: Systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation/reduction among vulnerable groups. Databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, ASSIA, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and Open Grey. Narrative synthesis of quantitative data and thematic synthesis of qualitative data. RESULTS: 2628 records and 46 full texts were screened; 9 studies were identified for inclusion. Due to low quality of evidence, it is uncertain whether e-cigarettes are effective for smoking cessation in vulnerable populations. A moderate quality study suggested that e-cigarettes were as effective as nicotine replacement therapy. Four studies suggested significant smoking reduction; however, three were uncontrolled and had sample sizes below 30. A prospective cohort study found no differences between e-cigarette users and nonusers. No significant adverse events and minimal side effects were identified. Qualitative thematic synthesis revealed barriers and facilitators associated with each component of the COM-B (capability, opportunity, motivation, and behavior) model, including practical barriers; perceptions of effectiveness for cessation/reduction; design features contributing to automatic and reflective motivation; smoking bans facilitating practical opportunity; and social connectedness increasing social opportunity. CONCLUSION: Further research is needed to identify the most appropriate device types for practicality and safety, level of support required in e-cigarette interventions, and to compare e-cigarettes with current best practice smoking cessation support among vulnerable groups. IMPLICATIONS: Smoking prevalence among people with mental illness, substance misuse, homelessness, or criminal justice system involvement remains high. E-cigarettes could support cessation. This systematic review found limited quantitative evidence assessing effectiveness. No serious adverse events were identified. Qualitative thematic synthesis revealed barriers and facilitators mapping to each component of the COM-B (capability, opportunity, motivation, and behavior) model, including practical barriers; perceived effectiveness; design features contributing to automatic and reflective motivation; smoking bans facilitating practical opportunity; and social connectedness increasing social opportunity. Further research should consider appropriate devices for practicality and safety, concurrent support, and comparison with best practice smoking cessation support.
2015Are metals emitted from electronic cigarettes a reason for health concern? A risk-assessment analysis of currently available literatureInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 5/15/2015)LINKBACKGROUND: Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC) aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC) users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. METHODS: Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE) from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel), the Minimal Risk Level (MRL) defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese) and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium). RESULTS: The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium) at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials.Tags: (aerosol; electronic cigarettes; inhalation; metals; risk assessment; smoking)
2018Are smokers who are regularly exposed to e-cigarette use by others more or less motivated to stop or to make a quit attempt? A cross-sectional and longitudinal surveyBMC medicine (p. 11/14/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised that observing other people using e-cigarettes may undermine motivation to quit by renormalising smoking. This study aimed to explore associations between regular exposure to other people's e-cigarette use and motivation to stop smoking and quit attempts in smokers. METHODS: Data were from 12,787 smokers in England who participated in the Smoking Toolkit Study between November 2014 and May 2018. At baseline, respondents were asked whether anyone other than themselves regularly used an e-cigarette in their presence, whether they had made a quit attempt in the past year and how motivated they were to stop. Data at 6-month follow-up were available for 1580 respondents, who reported on whether they had attempted to quit in the past 6 months. RESULTS: Smokers who reported regular exposure to e-cigarette use by others were more likely than those who did not to have tried to stop smoking in the past year (32.3% vs. 26.8%; unadjusted RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.11-1.31) and have high motivation to quit (16.6% vs. 14.2%; unadjusted RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30) but were not significantly more or less likely to make a quit attempt over the subsequent 6 months (34.4% vs. 31.3%; unadjusted RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.88-1.38). In models that adjusted for participants' own current e-cigarette use and unadjusted and adjusted models excluding current e-cigarette users from the sample, there were no significant associations between exposure to e-cigarette use by others and past quit attempts (RR 0.97-1.00), high current motivation to quit (RR 0.97-1.00) or prospective quit attempts (RR 0.94-1.12). In contrast, exposure to use of cigarettes was associated with low motivation to quit even after adjustment (RR 0.89) but not with quit attempts. Participants' own use of e-cigarette was strongly associated with high motivation to quit (RR 1.95) and past quit attempts (RR 2.14) and appeared to account for the bivariate associations with reported exposure to e-cigarettes. CONCLUSION: Smokers who report regular exposure to other people using e-cigarettes are more likely to report past quit attempts and high current motivation to quit, but there does not appear to be an independent association with motivation or quit attempts after adjustment for their own current use of e-cigarettes. In contrast, reported exposure to other people using cigarettes was independently and negatively associated with high motivation.Tags: (E-cigarettes; Motivation; Prospective cohort study; Quit attempts)
2019Are Some E-Cigarette Users Blowing Smoke?: Assessing the Accuracy of Self-Reported Smoking Abstinence in Exclusive E-Cigarette Users"Nicotine & tobacco research (p. 4/17/2019)LINK
2018Assessment of the abuse liability of three menthol Vuse Solo electronic cigarettes relative to combustible cigarettes and nicotine gumPsychopharmacology (p. 1/7/2018)LINKRATIONALE: We previously reported that following a short-term product use period, use of non-menthol Vuse Solo electronic cigarettes (ECs) resulted in product effect-related subjective responses and nicotine uptake between those of combustible cigarettes (high-abuse liability comparator) and nicotine gum (low-abuse liability comparator); the results were generally closer to those of nicotine gum. OBJECTIVE: Using a similar design to the previous study, we evaluated the abuse liability of three menthol-flavored Vuse Solo ECs with the same nicotine contents (14, 29, and 36 mg) in a group of EC-naïve, menthol cigarette smokers, relative to comparator products. METHODS: Six-hour nicotine uptake and ratings of subjective effects were used to determine abuse liability and pharmacokinetics. RESULTS: Use of menthol Vuse Solo resulted in significantly lower responses to subjective measurements (product liking, intent to use product again, and liking of positive product effects), higher urge to smoke responses, and a lower peak (Cmax) and overall extent (AUC0-360) of nicotine uptake compared to smoking the usual brand menthol cigarette. When compared with use of nicotine gum, subjective responses to use of menthol Vuse ECs were in the same direction as those resulting from smoking cigarettes but were more similar to nicotine gum use in magnitude than they were to cigarettes. CONCLUSION: These findings are concordant with our previous results and provide evidence that menthol Vuse Solo ECs have abuse liability that is lower than menthol cigarettes and potentially greater than that of nicotine gum. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02664012.Tags: (Abuse liability; Electronic cigarettes; Menthol; Nicotine pharmacokinetics; Subjective measures)
2016Association between electronic cigarette use and changes in quit attempts, success of quit attempts, use of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy, and use of stop smoking services in England: time series analysis of population trendsBMJ (p. 9/13/2016)LINKOBJECTIVES: To estimate how far changes in the prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in England have been associated with changes in quit success, quit attempts, and use of licensed medication and behavioural support in quit attempts. DESIGN: Time series analysis of population trends. PARTICIPANTS: Participants came from the Smoking Toolkit Study, which involves repeated, cross sectional household surveys of individuals aged 16 years and older in England. Data were aggregated on about 1200 smokers quarterly between 2006 and 2015. Monitoring data were also used from the national behavioural support programme; during the study, 8 029 012 quit dates were set with this programme. SETTING: England. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of e-cigarette use in current smokers and during a quit attempt were used to predict quit success. Prevalence of e-cigarette use in current smokers was used to predict rate of quit attempts. Percentage of quit attempts involving e-cigarette use was also used to predict quit attempts involving use of prescription treatments, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on prescription and bought over the counter, and use of behavioural support. Analyses involved adjustment for a range of potential confounders. RESULTS: The success rate of quit attempts increased by 0.098% (95% confidence interval 0.064 to 0.132; P<0.001) and 0.058% (0.038 to 0.078; P<0.001) for every 1% increase in the prevalence of e-cigarette use by smokers and e-cigarette use during a recent quit attempt, respectively. There was no clear evidence for an association between e-cigarette use and rate of quit attempts (β 0.025; 95% confidence interval -0.035 to 0.085; P=0.41), use of NRT bought over the counter (β 0.006; -0.088 to 0.077; P=0.89), use of prescription treatment (β -0.070; -0.152 to 0.013; P=0.10), or use of behavioural support (β -0.013; -0.102 to 0.077; P=0.78). A negative association was found between e-cigarette use during a recent quit attempt and use of NRT obtained on prescription (β -0.098; -0.189 to -0.007; P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Changes in prevalence of e-cigarette use in England have been positively associated with the success rates of quit attempts. No clear association has been found between e-cigarette use and the rate of quit attempts or the use of other quitting aids, except for NRT obtained on prescription, where the association has been negative.Study registration The analysis plan was preregistered (https://osf.io/fbgj2/).
2018Association of E-Cigarette Use With Smoking Cessation Among Smokers Who Plan to Quit After a Hospitalization: A Prospective StudyAnnals of internal medicine (p. 5/1/2018)LINKBackground: Many smokers report using e-cigarettes to help them quit smoking, but whether e-cigarettes aid cessation efforts is uncertain. Objective: To determine whether e-cigarette use after hospital discharge is associated with subsequent tobacco abstinence among smokers who plan to quit and are advised to use evidence-based treatment. Design: Secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01714323 [parent trial]). Setting: 3 hospitals. Participants: 1357 hospitalized adult cigarette smokers who planned to stop smoking, received tobacco cessation counseling in the hospital, and were randomly assigned at discharge to a tobacco treatment recommendation (control) or free tobacco treatment (intervention). Measurements: Self-reported e-cigarette use (exposure) was assessed 1 and 3 months after discharge; biochemically validated tobacco abstinence (outcome) was assessed 6 months after discharge. Results: Twenty-eight percent of participants used an e-cigarette within 3 months after discharge. In an analysis of 237 propensity score-matched pairs, e-cigarette users were less likely than nonusers to abstain from tobacco use at 6 months (10.1% vs. 26.6%; risk difference, -16.5% [95% CI, -23.3% to -9.6%]). The association between e-cigarette use and quitting varied between intervention patients, who were given easy access to conventional treatment (7.7% vs. 29.8%; risk difference, -22.1% [CI, -32.3% to -11.9%]), and control patients, who received only treatment recommendations (12.0% vs. 24.1%; risk difference, -12.0% [CI, -21.2% to 2.9%]) (P for interaction = 0.143). Limitations: Patients self-selected e-cigarette use. Unmeasured confounding is possible in an observational study. Conclusion: During 3 months after hospital discharge, more than a quarter of smokers attempting to quit used e-cigarettes, mostly to aid cessation, but few used them regularly. This pattern of use was associated with less tobacco abstinence at 6 months than among smokers who did not use e-cigarettes. Additional study is needed to determine whether regular use of e-cigarettes aids or hinders smoking cessation. Primary Funding Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
2018Association of Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes With Smoking Behaviors and Biomarkers of Exposure Among Slow and Fast Nicotine Metabolizers: A Nonrandomized Clinical TrialJAMA network open (p. 1/8/2018)LINKIMPORTANCE: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has announced its intention to reduce the nicotine content in combustible cigarettes but must base regulation on public health benefits. Fast nicotine metabolizers may be at risk for increased smoking following a national nicotine reduction policy. We hypothesized that using reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes would be associated with increases in smoking behaviors and exposure among smokers with a fast-but not slow-nicotine-metabolite ratio (NMR). OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of RNC cigarettes with smoking behaviors and biomarkers of exposure and to compare these associations in fast and slow metabolizers of nicotine based on the NMR. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A 35-day, 3-period, within-participant nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted at an academic medical center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A 5-day baseline period using the smokers' preferred brand of cigarettes was followed by 2 consecutive 15-day periods using free investigational RNC cigarettes. A total of 100 daily, non-treatment-seeking, nonmenthol cigarette smokers (59 fast, 41 slow metabolizers) were recruited from December 24, 2013, to December 2, 2015. Data analysis was performed from December 12, 2016, to January 3, 2018. INTERVENTIONS: Two 15-day periods using cigarettes containing 5.2 mg (RNC1) and 1.3 mg (RNC2) of nicotine per gram of tobacco. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Smoking behaviors (number of cigarettes per day [CPD], total puff volume) and biomarkers of exposure (carbon monoxide [CO], urine total nicotine equivalents [TNE], and 4-[methylnitrosamino]-1-[3-pyridyl]-1-butanol [NNAL]). RESULTS: Smokers (73 [73.0%] men; 74 [74.0%] white; mean [SD] age, 43.02 [12.13] years; mean [SD] CPD, 17.31 [5.72]) consumed 2.62 (95% CI, 1.54-3.70) more CPD during the RNC1 period vs their preferred brand during baseline (P < .001) and approximated baseline CPD during the RNC2 period (mean difference, 0.96 [95% CI, -0.36 to 2.28]; P = .24). Additional outcome measures were lower during both RNC periods vs baseline (total puff volume, mean [95% CI]: RNC1, 537 mL [95% CI, 479-595 mL]; RNC2, 598 mL [95% CI, 547-649 mL] vs baseline, 744 mL [95% CI, 681-806 mL]; TNE, mean [95% CI]: RNC1, 30.9 nmoL/mg creatinine [95% CI, 26.0-36.6 nmoL/mg]; RNC2, 22.8 nmoL/mg creatinine [95% CI, 17.8-29.0 nmoL/mg] vs baseline, 54.6 nmoL/mg creatinine [95% CI, 48.1-62.1 nmoL/mg]; and NNAL, mean [95% CI]: RNC1, 229 pg/mg creatinine [95% CI, 189-277 pg/mg]; RNC2, 190 pg/mg creatinine [95% CI, 157-231 pg/mg] vs baseline, 280 pg/mg creatinine [95% CI, 231-339 pg/mg]; all P < .001). Carbon monoxide measures were similar across study periods (CO boost [SD], RNC1, 4.6 ppm [4.1-5.1 ppm]; RNC2, 4.2 ppm [3.7-4.6 ppm]; and baseline, 4.4 ppm [3.8-4.9 ppm]). The RNC cigarette associations did not differ by NMR. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Both RNC cigarettes were associated with decreased puffing and urinary biomarker exposure but not with decreased daily cigarette consumption or CO levels. The NMR did not moderate associations at the nicotine levels tested, suggesting that fast metabolizers may not be at greater risk of increasing use or exposure from these products should the FDA mandate an RNC standard for cigarettes.
2015Associations Between E-Cigarette Type, Frequency of Use, and Quitting Smoking: Findings From a Longitudinal Online Panel Survey in Great BritainNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/10/2015)LINKINTRODUCTION: E-cigarettes can be categorized into two basic types, (1) cigalikes, that are disposable or use pre-filled cartridges and (2) tanks, that can be refilled with liquids. The aims of this study were to examine: (1) predictors of using the two e-cigarette types, and (2) the association between type used, frequency of use (daily vs. non-daily vs. no use), and quitting. METHODS: Online longitudinal survey of smokers in Great Britain was first conducted in November 2012. Of 4064 respondents meeting inclusion criteria at baseline, this study included (N = 1643) current smokers followed-up 1 year later. Type and frequency of e-cigarette use were measured at follow-up. RESULTS: At follow-up, 64% reported no e-cigarette use, 27% used cigalikes, and 9% used tanks. Among e-cigarette users at follow-up, respondents most likely to use tanks versus cigalikes included: 40-54 versus 18-24 year olds and those with low versus moderate/high education. Compared to no e-cigarette use at follow-up, non-daily cigalike users were less likely to have quit smoking since baseline (P = .0002), daily cigalike or non-daily tank users were no more or less likely to have quit (P = .3644 and P = .4216, respectively), and daily tank users were more likely to have quit (P = .0012). CONCLUSIONS: Whether e-cigarette use is associated with quitting depends on type and frequency of use. Compared with respondents not using e-cigarettes, daily tank users were more likely, and non-daily cigalike users were less likely, to have quit. Tanks were more likely to be used by older respondents and respondents with lower education.
2019Attitudes to E-Cigarettes and Cessation Support for Pregnant Women from English Stop Smoking Services: A Mixed Methods StudyInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 1/3/2019)LINKSmoking in pregnancy remains a public health problem. In the UK e-cigarettes are the most popular aid to quitting smoking outside of pregnancy, but we don't know the extent of e-cigarette use in pregnancy or how English Stop Smoking Services (SSS) respond to pregnant women who vape. In 2015 we surveyed SSS managers about cessation support for pregnant women and responses to clients who vaped. Subsequently we interviewed a sub-sample of managers to seek explanations for the SSS' position on e-cigarettes; interviews were thematically analysed. Survey response rate was 67.8% (72/106); overall managers reported 2.2% (range 1.4⁻4.3%) of pregnant clients were using e-cigarettes. Most SSS reported supporting pregnant women who already vaped, but would not recommend e-cigarette use; for women that were still smoking and not using e-cigarettes, 8.3% of SSS were likely/very likely to advise using e-cigarettes, with 56.9% of SSS unlikely/very unlikely to advise using them. Fifteen respondents were interviewed; interviewees were generally positive about the potential of e-cigarettes for cessation in pregnancy although concerns about perceived lack of evidence for safety were expressed and most wanted research on this. Clear guidance on e-cigarette use informed by pregnancy specific research will assist SSS to provide consistent evidence-based support.Tags: (e-cigarettes; electronic cigarettes; interviews; mixed methods; pregnancy; smoking; smoking cessation; stop smoking services; survey)
2013Awareness and ever-use of electronic cigarettes among U.S. adults, 2010-2011Nicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/9/2013)LINKINTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, were introduced into the U.S. market in recent years. However, little is known about the health impact of the product or the extent of its use. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of awareness and ever-use of e-cigarettes among U.S. adults during 2010-2011. METHODS: Data were obtained from the HealthStyles survey, a national consumer-based survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years old. In 2010, data collection for the HealthStyles survey was both mail-based (n = 4,184) and web-based (n = 2,505), and in 2011, web-based (n = 4,050) only. Estimates of awareness and ever-use of e-cigarettes were calculated overall and by sex, age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, household income, region, and smoking status. RESULTS: In 2010, overall awareness of e-cigarettes was 38.5% (mail survey) and 40.9% (web survey); in 2011, awareness was 57.9% (web survey). Ever-use of e-cigarettes among all respondents was 2.1% in the 2010 mail survey, 3.3% in the 2010 web survey, and 6.2% in the 2011 web survey. Ever-use of e-cigarettes was significantly higher among current smokers compared with both former and never-smokers, irrespective of survey method or year. During 2010-2011, ever-use increased among both sexes, those aged 45-54 years, non-Hispanic Whites, those living in the South, and current and former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness and ever-use of e-cigarettes increased among U.S. adults from 2010 to 2011. In 2011, approximately 1 in 5 current smokers reported having ever-used e-cigarettes. Continued surveillance of e-cigarettes is needed for public health planning.
2019Behavioral Economic Purchase Tasks to Estimate Demand for Novel Nicotine/tobacco Products and Prospectively Predict Future Use: Evidence From The NetherlandsNicotine & tobacco research (p. 5/21/2019)LINKINTRODUCTION: The demand for alternative nicotine/tobacco products is not well established. This paper uses a behavioral economic approach to test whether smokers have differential demand for conventional factory-made, electronic, and very low nicotine content cigarettes (FMCs/ECs/VLNCs) and uses the prospective cohort design to test the predictive validity of demand indices on subsequent use of commercially available FMCs and ECs. METHODS: Daily smokers (≥16 years) from the Netherlands completed an online survey in April 2014 (N = 1215). Purchase tasks were completed for FMCs, ECs, and VLNCs. Participants indicated the number of cigarettes they would consume in 24 h, across a range of prices (0-30 euro). The relationship between consumption and price was quantified into four indices of demand (intensity, Pmax, breakpoint, and essential value). A follow-up survey in July 2015 measured FMC and EC use. RESULTS: At baseline, greater demand was observed for FMCs relative to ECs and VLNCs across all demand indices, with no difference between ECs and VLNCs. At follow-up, greater baseline FMC demand (intensity, essential value) was associated with lower quit rates and higher relapse. EC demand (Pmax, breakpoint, essential value) was positively associated with any EC use between survey waves, past 30 day EC use, and EC purchase between waves. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers valued FMCs more than ECs or VLNCs, and FMCs were less sensitive to price increases. Demand indices predicted use of commercially available products over a 15 month period. To serve as viable substitutes for FMCs, ECs and VLNCs will need to be priced lower than FMCs. IMPLICATIONS: Purchase tasks can be adapted for novel nicotine/tobacco products as a means to efficiently quantify demand and predict use. Among current daily smokers, the demand for ECs and VLNCs is lower than FMCs.
2016Benefits of E-Cigarettes Among Heavy Smokers Undergoing a Lung Cancer Screening Program: Randomized Controlled Trial ProtocolJMIR research protocols (p. 2/3/2016)LINKBACKGROUND: Smoking is a global public health problem. For this reason, experts have called smoking dependence a global epidemic. Over the past 5 years, sales of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, have been growing strongly in many countries. Yet there is only partial evidence that e-cigarettes are beneficial for smoking cessation. In particular, although it has been proven that nicotine replacement devices may help individuals stop smoking and tolerate withdrawal symptoms, e-cigarettes' power to increase the quitting success rate is still limited, ranging from 5% to 20% dependent on smokers' baseline conditions as shown by a recent Cochrane review. Consequently, it is urgent to know if e-cigarettes may have a higher success rate than other nicotine replacement methods and under what conditions. Furthermore, the effects of the therapeutic setting and the relationship between individual characteristics and the success rate have not been tested. This protocol is particularly innovative, because it aims to test the effectiveness of electronic devices in a screening program (the COSMOS II lung cancer prevention program at the European Institute of Oncology), where tobacco reduction is needed to lower individuals' lung cancer risks. OBJECTIVE: This protocol was designed with the primary aim of investigating the role of tobacco-free cigarettes in helping smokers improve lung health and either quit smoking or reduce their tobacco consumption. In particular, we aim to investigate the impact of a 3-month e-cigarettes program to reduce smoking-related respiratory symptoms (eg, dry cough, shortness of breath, mouth irritation, and phlegm) through reduced consumption of tobacco cigarettes. Furthermore, we evaluate the behavioral and psychological (eg, well-being, mood, and quality of life) effects of the treatment. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, three-parallel group study. The study is organized as a nested randomized controlled study with 3 branches: a nicotine e-cigarettes group, a nicotine-free e-cigarettes group, and a control group. The study is nested in a screening program for early lung cancer detection in heavy smokers. RESULTS: The study is open and is still recruiting. CONCLUSIONS: Stopping or reducing tobacco consumption should be a main goal of any health organization. However, traditional antismoking programs are expensive and not always effective. Therefore, favoring a partial or complete shift to e-cigarettes in heavy smokers (eg, persons at high risk for a number of diseases) could be considered a moral imperative. However, before following this path, sound and reliable data on large samples and in a variety of contexts are required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02422914; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02422914 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6etwz1bPL).Tags: (electronic cigarettes; lung cancer screening; smoking related diseases.; tobacco cessation)
2017Benzene formation in electronic cigarettesPloS one (p. 3/8/2017)LINKBACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The heating of the fluids used in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes") used to create ""vaping"" aerosols is capable of causing a wide range of degradation reaction products. We investigated formation of benzene (an important human carcinogen) from e-cigarette fluids containing propylene glycol (PG)"
2015Biochemically verified smoking cessation and vaping beliefs among vape store customersAddiction (p. 1/5/2015)LINKAIMS: To evaluate biochemically verified smoking status and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) use behaviors and beliefs among a sample of customers from vapor stores (stores specializing in ENDS). DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional survey of 215 adult vapor store customers at four retail locations in the Midwestern United States; a subset of participants (n = 181) also completed exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) testing to verify smoking status. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes evaluated included ENDS preferences, harm beliefs, use behaviors, smoking history and current biochemically verified smoking status. FINDINGS: Most customers reported starting ENDS as a means of smoking cessation (86%), using newer-generation devices (89%), vaping non-tobacco/non-menthol flavors (72%) and using e-liquid with nicotine strengths of ≤20 mg/ml (72%). There was a high rate of switching (91.4%) to newer-generation ENDS among those who started with a first-generation product. Exhaled CO readings confirmed that 66% of the tested sample had quit smoking. Among those who continued to smoke, mean cigarettes per day decreased from 22.1 to 7.5 (P <0.001). People who reported vaping longer [odds ratio (OR) = 4.659, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.001-10.846], using newer-generation devices (OR = 2.950, 95% CI = 1.037-8.395) and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavors (OR = 2.626, 95% CI = 1.133-6.085) were more likely to have quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Among vapor store customers in the United States who use electronic nicotine delivery devices to stop smoking, vaping longer, using newer-generation devices and using non-tobacco and non-menthol flavored e-liquid appear to be associated with higher rates of smoking cessation.Tags: (Electronic cigarettes; electronic nicotine delivery systems; smoking cessation; tank systems; vaping; vapor stores)
2019Biomarkers of Exposure Among Dual Users of Tobacco Cigarettes and Electronic Cigarettes in Canada"Nicotine & tobacco research (p. 8/19/2019)LINKINTRODUCTION: Dual use" refers to the concurrent use of tobacco cigarettes (smoking) and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes; vaping). Although dual use is common among e-cigarette users" there is little evidence regarding biomarkers of exposure among dual users and how these change under different conditions of product use. METHODS: A nonblinded within-subjects crossover experiment was conducted with adult daily dual users (n = 48) in Ontario
2019Biomarkers of Exposure Specific to E-vapor Products Based on Stable-Isotope Labeled IngredientsNicotine & tobacco research (p. 2/18/2019)LINKINTRODUCTION: An important basis for risk estimation for e-cigarette (e-cig) users is a well-founded dosimetry. The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of stable-isotope e-liquid ingredients for exposure studies in vapers. METHODS: E-cigs with 10% of labeled propylene glycol (PG), glycerol (G), and nicotine was used by 20 experienced vapers under controlled (Part A) and free (Part B) conditions. In Part A, 10 subjects vaped at 10 W and another 10 subjects at 18 W power setting of the e-cig. In Part B, the same subjects used the same product ad libitum in their usual environment. Five smokers, smoking 10 non-filter cigarettes, spiked with labeled PG, G, and nicotine, served as positive control during Part A. PG, G, nicotine and its metabolites were measured in plasma, urine, and saliva. RESULTS: Peak nicotine levels (sum of measured labeled and unlabeled) in plasma were lower in vapers (15.8 to 19.6 ng/mL) than in smokers (36 ng/mL). The labeled plasma nicotine levels were ten times lower than the unlabeled, reflecting the ratio in the e-liquid. PG levels in plasma and urine also reflected the vaping activities in Part A, while G in these body fluids showed no association with vaping. CONCLUSIONS: This proof of concept study shows that the application of labeled e-liquid ingredients allows the accurate quantification of the dose of nicotine and PG when other nicotine and tobacco products were used simultaneously. Unchanged G was not assessable by this approach. IMPLICATIONS: This approach allows the investigations of the absorption of potential PG-, G-, and nicotine-derived vapor constituents (eg, aldehydes and epoxides) by vaping. Appropriate studies are in progress in our laboratory.
2019Biomarkers of Tobacco Exposure Decrease After Smokers Switch to an E-Cigarette or Nicotine GumNicotine & tobacco research (p. 8/19/2019)LINKINTRODUCTION: The aerosol composition of electronic cigarettes (ECs) suggests that exposure to toxicants during use is greatly reduced compared to exposure from combustible cigarettes (CCs). METHODS: This randomized, parallel-group, clinical study enrolled smokers to switch to Vuse Solo (VS) Digital Vapor Cigarettes (Original or Menthol) or Nicorette 4 mg nicotine gum (NG) in a controlled setting. Subjects who smoked CCs ad libitum for 2 days during a baseline period were then randomized to ad libitum use of either VS or NG for 5 days. Biomarkers of 23 toxicants were measured in 24-hour urine samples and blood collected at baseline and following product switch. RESULTS: A total of 153 subjects completed the study. Total nicotine equivalents decreased in all groups, but higher levels were observed in the VS groups compared to the NG groups, with decreases of 38% and 60%-67%, respectively. All other biomarkers were significantly decreased in subjects switched to VS, and the magnitude of biomarker decreases was similar to subjects switched to NG. Decreases ranged from 30% to greater than 85% for constituents such as benzene and acrylonitrile. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that exposure to toxicants when using VS is significantly reduced compared to CC smoking, and these reductions are similar to those observed with use of NG. Although statistically significantly decreased, nicotine exposure is maintained closer to CC smoking with VS use compared to NG use. This research suggests that use of VS exposes consumers to fewer and lower levels of smoke toxicants than CCs while still providing nicotine to the consumer. IMPLICATIONS: This is the first study to report changes in nicotine delivery and biomarkers of tobacco exposure following a short-term product switch from CCs to either an EC or NG in a controlled environment. The study shows that nicotine exposure decreased in both groups but was maintained closer to CC smoking with the EC groups. Biomarkers of tobacco combustion decreased to similar levels in both EC and gum groups.
2016Blending evidence and empathy – a new guide to e-cigarettes(p. 2/25/201)LINKI would like to draw your attention to a really excellent new briefing on e-cigarettes from the UK National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training … this is version 2, February 2016. Elec…
2015Breakthrough On E-Cigarette Bans: How British Adoption Authorities Regained Their Sanity(p. 3/4/201)LINKNo ex-smoker should be denied a chance to adopt because he or she uses an e-cigarette. By the very act of vaping, they've established that they care about children's health.
2015Can E-Cigarettes Save Lives?(p. 10/17/201)LINKOf course they can. So why won’t anti-tobacco advocates get behind them?
2019Cannabidiol (CBD) content in vaporized cannabis does not prevent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced impairment of driving and cognitionPsychopharmacology (p. 1/9/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: The main psychoactive component of cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can impair driving performance. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating cannabis component, is thought to mitigate certain adverse effects of THC. It is possible then that cannabis containing equivalent CBD and THC will differentially affect driving and cognition relative to THC-dominant cannabis. AIMS: The present study investigated and compared the effects of THC-dominant and THC/CBD equivalent cannabis on simulated driving and cognitive performance. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, within-subjects crossover design, healthy volunteers (n = 14) with a history of light cannabis use attended three outpatient experimental test sessions in which simulated driving and cognitive performance were assessed at two timepoints (20-60 min and 200-240 min) following vaporization of 125 mg THC-dominant (11% THC; < 1% CBD), THC/CBD equivalent (11% THC, 11% CBD), or placebo (< 1% THC/CBD) cannabis. RESULTS/OUTCOMES: Both active cannabis types increased lane weaving during a car-following task but had little effect on other driving performance measures. Active cannabis types impaired performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), Divided Attention Task (DAT) and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) with impairment on the latter two tasks worse with THC/CBD equivalent cannabis. Subjective drug effects (e.g., stoned") and confidence in driving ability did not vary with CBD content. Peak plasma THC concentrations were higher following THC/CBD equivalent cannabis relative to THC-dominant cannabis" suggesting a possible pharmacokinetic interaction. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Cannabis containing equivalent concentrations of CBD and THC appears no less impairing than THC-dominant cannabis
2014Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettesInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 10/28/2014)LINKElectronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.
2018Carbonyl emissions from a novel heated tobacco product (IQOS): comparison with an e-cigarette and a tobacco cigaretteAddiction (p. 1/11/2018)LINKAIMS: To measure carbonyl emissions from a heated tobacco product (IQOS) in comparison with an e-cigarette (Nautilus Mini) and a commercial tobacco cigarette (Marlboro Red). DESIGN: Regular and menthol variants of the heated tobacco product were tested. A tank-type atomizer was tested with a tobacco-flavoured liquid at 10 and 14 W. Aerosol and smoke were collected in impingers containing 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Health Canada Intense and two more intense puffing regimens were used. SETTING: Analytical laboratory in Greece. MEASUREMENTS: Carbonyl levels in the aerosol and smoke. FINDINGS: At the Health Canada Intense regimen, heated tobacco products emitted 5.0-6.4 μg/stick formaldehyde, 144.1-176.7 μg/stick acetaldehyde, 10.4-10.8 μg/stick acrolein, 11.0-12.8 μg/stick propionaldehyde and 1.9-2.0 μg/stick crotonaldehyde. Compared with the tobacco cigarette, levels were on average 91.6% lower for formaldehyde, 84.9% lower for acetaldehyde, 90.6% lower for acrolein, 89.0% lower for propionaldehyde and 95.3% lower for crotonaldehyde. The e-cigarette emitted 0.5-1.0 μg/12 puffs formaldehyde, 0.8-1.5 μg/12 puffs acetaldehyde and 0.3-0.4 μg/12 puffs acrolein, but no propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde. At more intense puffing regimens, formaldehyde was increased in heated tobacco products, but levels were three-fourfold lower compared with the tobacco cigarette. Based on the findings from Health Canada Intense puffing regimen, use of 20 heated tobacco sticks would result in approximately 85% to 95% reduced carbonyl exposure compared with smoking 20 tobacco cigarettes; the respective reduction in exposure from use of 5 g e-cigarette liquid would be 97% to > 99%. CONCLUSIONS: The IQOS heated tobacco product emits substantially lower levels of carbonyls than a commercial tobacco cigarette (Marlboro Red) but higher levels than a Nautilus Mini e-cigarette.Tags: (Carbonyls; electronic cigarettes; harm reduction; heated tobacco products; nicotine; smoking)
2013Carboxyhaemoglobin levels, health and lifestyle perceptions in smokers converting from tobacco cigarettes to electronic cigarettesSouth African medical journal (p. 9/30/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer are diseases associated with smoking tobacco cigarettes. Smokers find cessation difficult. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether smoking the Twisp electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), containing nicotine in a vegetable-based glycerine substance, would reduce carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels in regular cigarette smokers by (i) comparing arterial and venous COHb levels before and after smoking the Twisp e-cigarette for 2 weeks; and (ii) evaluating changes in participants' perception of their health and lifestyle following the use of Twisp e-cigarettes. METHODS: A single group within-subject design was used where tobacco cigarette smokers converted to Twisp e-cigarettes for 2 weeks. Prior to using the Twisp e-cigarette and after using this device for 2 weeks, arterial COHb, venous COHb and venous cotinine levels were determined. Additionally, the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire outlining their perceptions on health and lifestyle. RESULTS: Thirteen participants of median age 38 years (range 23 - 46) with a smoking median of 20 cigarettes/day (range 12 - 30) completed the study. COHb levels (%) were significantly reduced after smoking Twisp e-cigarettes for 2 weeks (mean ± standard deviation (SD) arterial COHb before 4.66±1.99 v. after 2.46±1.35; p=0.014 and mean ±SD venous COHb before 4.37±2.1 v. after 2.50±1.23; p=0.018). There was excellent agreement between arterial and venous COHb levels (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.916). A decrease in cotinine levels (p=0.001) and an increase in oxygen saturation (p=0.002) were also observed. The majority of participants perceived improvements in their health and lifestyle parameters. CONCLUSION: Smoking the Twisp e-cigarette may be a healthier and more acceptable alternative to smoking tobacco cigarettes.
2015Cardiac development in zebrafish and human embryonic stem cells is inhibited by exposure to tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettesPloS one (p. 5/15/2015)LINKBACKGROUND: Maternal smoking is a risk factor for low birth weight and other adverse developmental outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the impact of standard tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes on heart development in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to assess developmental effects in vivo and cardiac differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) was used as a model for in vitro cardiac development. RESULTS: In zebrafish, exposure to both types of cigarettes results in broad, dose-dependent developmental defects coupled with severe heart malformation, pericardial edema and reduced heart function. Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than e-cigarettes at comparable nicotine concentrations. During cardiac differentiation of hESCs, tobacco smoke exposure results in a delayed transition through mesoderm. Both types of cigarettes decrease expression of cardiac transcription factors in cardiac progenitor cells, suggesting a persistent delay in differentiation. In definitive human cardiomyocytes, both e-cigarette- and tobacco cigarette-treated samples showed reduced expression of sarcomeric genes such as MLC2v and MYL6. Furthermore, tobacco cigarette-treated samples had delayed onset of beating and showed low levels and aberrant localization of N-cadherin, reduced myofilament content with significantly reduced sarcomere length, and increased expression of the immature cardiac marker smooth muscle alpha-actin. CONCLUSION: These data indicate a negative effect of both tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes on heart development in vitro and in vivo. Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than E-cigarettes and exhibit a broader spectrum of cardiac developmental defects.
2019Cardiovascular Effects of Switching From Tobacco Cigarettes to Electronic CigarettesJournal of the American College of Cardiology (p. 12/24/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: E-cigarette (EC) use is increasing exponentially worldwide. The early cardiovascular effects of switching from tobacco cigarettes (TC) to EC in chronic smokers is unknown. Meta-analysis of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) studies indicate 13% lower pooled, adjusted relative risks of cardiovascular events with every 1% improvement in FMD. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the early vascular impact of switching from TC to EC in chronic smokers. METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective, randomized control trial with a parallel nonrandomized preference cohort and blinded endpoint of smokers ≥18 years of age who had smoked ≥15 cigarettes/day for ≥2 years and were free from established cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomized to EC with nicotine or EC without nicotine for 1 month. Those unwilling to quit continued with TC in a parallel preference arm. A propensity score analysis was done to adjust for differences between the randomized and preference arms. Vascular function was assessed by FMD and pulse wave velocity. Compliance with EC was measured by carbon monoxide levels. RESULTS: Within 1 month of switching from TC to EC, there was a significant improvement in endothelial function (linear trend β = 0.73%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41 to 1.05; p < 0.0001; TC vs. EC combined: 1.49%; 95% CI: 0.93 to 2.04; p < 0.0001) and vascular stiffness (-0.529 m/s; 95% CI: -0.946 to -0.112; p = 0.014). Females benefited from switching more than males did in every between-group comparison. Those who complied best with EC switch demonstrated the largest improvement. There was no difference in vascular effects between EC with and without nicotine within the study timeframe. CONCLUSIONS: TC smokers, particularly females, demonstrate significant improvement in vascular health within 1 month of switching from TC to EC. Switching from TC to EC may be considered a harms reduction measure. (Vascular Effects of Regular Cigarettes Versus Electronic Cigarette Use [VESUVIUS]; NCT02878421; ISRCTN59133298).Tags: (electronic cigarette; endothelial function; vascular stiffness)
2013CASAA: New study confirms that chemicals in electronic cigarettes pose minimal health risk(p. 8/8/201)LINK
2019Changes in Biomarkers of Exposure on Switching From a Conventional Cigarette to Tobacco Heating Products: A Randomized, Controlled Study in Healthy Japanese SubjectsNicotine & tobacco research (p. 8/19/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: Smoking is a leading cause of numerous human disorders including pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Disease development is primarily caused by exposure to cigarette smoke constituents, many of which are known toxicants. Switching smokers to modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) has been suggested as a potential means to reduce the risks of tobacco use, by reducing such exposure. METHODS: This randomized, controlled study investigated whether biomarkers of toxicant exposure (BoE) were reduced when smokers switched from smoking combustible cigarettes to using a novel (glo™/THP1.0) or in-market comparator (iQOS/THS) tobacco heating product (THP). One hundred eighty Japanese smokers smoked combustible cigarettes during a 2-day baseline period, followed by randomization to either continue smoking cigarettes, switch to using mentholated or non-mentholated variants of glo™, switch to using a non-mentholated variant of iQOS, or quit nicotine and tobacco product use completely for 5 days. Baseline and post-randomization 24-h urine samples were collected for BoE analysis. Carbon monoxide was measured daily in exhaled breath (eCO). RESULTS: On day 5 after switching, urinary BoE (excluding for nicotine) and eCO levels were significantly (p .05) to quitting in many cases. CONCLUSIONS: glo™ or iQOS use for 5 days reduced exposure to smoke toxicants in a manner comparable to quitting tobacco use. THPs are reduced exposure tobacco products with the potential to be MRTPs. IMPLICATIONS: This clinical study demonstrates that when smokers switched from smoking combustible cigarettes to using tobacco heating products their exposure to smoke toxicants was significantly decreased. In many cases, this was to the same extent as that seen when they quit smoking completely. This may indicate that these products have the potential to be reduced exposure and/or reduced risk tobacco products when used by smokers whose cigarette consumption is displaced completely. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: ISRCTN14301360 and UMIN000024988.
2018Changes in Puffing Topography and Nicotine Consumption Depending on the Power Setting of Electronic CigarettesNicotine & tobacco research (p. 7/9/2018)LINKIntroduction: The study purpose was to evaluate changes in puffing topography of experienced electronic cigarette users (vapers) when changing power settings in electronic cigarette battery devices. Methods: Experienced adult vapers (n = 21) were recruited. Participants used their own liquids and an atomizer and battery provided by the researchers. Two 30-minute sessions were performed, with the device power set at 6 W and 10 W, in a randomized, crossover, participant-blinded design. Puff number and duration (mean [SD]) were recorded in the provided electronic cigarette battery device, whereas the atomizers were weighted before and after use to determine liquid and nicotine consumption. Results: Puff number and puff duration were lower at 10 W (46 [16] puffs and 3.8 [0.8] s) compared with 6 W (57 [20] puffs and 4.6 [1.0] s). Liquid and nicotine consumption was higher at 10 W (373 [176] mg and 4.2 [2.4] mg, respectively) compared with 6 W (308 [165] mg and 3.5 [2.3] mg, respectively). Vapers reported more aerosol volume and ease of use at 10 W compared with 6 W. Conclusions: The study identified an attempt for compensatory puffing patterns and nicotine self-titration, with a change in puffing patterns (puff number and duration) observed when changing the power settings of an e-cigarette device. Implications: Compensatory smoking behavior and nicotine self-titration is a well-established phenomenon. In electronic cigarettes, changing nicotine concentration in the liquid has been shown to trigger a compensatory puffing pattern. Herein, power setting of the electronic cigarette device was found to be a parameter associated with changes in puffing behavior, whereas higher power was preferable for the participants. These findings could contribute to the understanding of patterns of electronic cigarette use and could explain the preference of dedicated vapers to higher power devices. Additionally, laboratory studies evaluating aerosol emissions should consider using different puffing patterns according to the power settings tested.
2018Changing patterns of first e-cigarette flavor used and current flavors used by 20,836 adult frequent e-cigarette users in the USAHarm reduction journal (p. 6/28/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: Understanding the role that flavors play in the population's use of e-cigarettes and the impact that flavored e-cigarette products have on the population's use of more harmful tobacco products, like conventional cigarettes, has been identified by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a public health research priority. The purpose of the study was to assess the first e-cigarette flavor and current e-cigarette flavors used by a large non-probabilistic sample of adult frequent users of e-cigarettes in the USA and assess how flavor preferences vary by cigarette smoking status and time since first e-cigarette purchase. METHODS: An online survey assessed the first e-cigarette flavor and current e-cigarette flavors used by a non-probabilistic sample of 20,836 adult frequent e-cigarette users in the USA. Differences in e-cigarette flavor preferences between current smokers, former smokers, and never-smokers and trends in the first flavor used across time of e-cigarette use initiation were assessed. RESULTS: The majority (n = 15,807; 76.4%) of sampled frequent e-cigarette users had completely substituted e-cigarettes for conventional cigarettes-switchers"-and were currently using rechargeable"refillable vaping devices. Among them
2015Characterisation of mainstream and passive vapours emitted by selected electronic cigarettesInternational journal of hygiene and environmental health (p. 1/1/2015)LINKElectronic cigarettes have achieved growing popularity since their introduction onto the European market. They are promoted by manufacturers as healthier alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, however debate among scientists and public health experts about their possible impact on health and indoor air quality means further research into the product is required to ensure decisions of policymakers, health care providers and consumers are based on sound science. This study investigated and characterised the impact of 'vaping' (using electronic cigarettes) on indoor environments under controlled conditions using a 30m(3) emission chamber. The study determined the composition of e-cigarette mainstream vapour in terms of propylene glycol, glycerol, carbonyls and nicotine emissions using a smoking machine with adapted smoking parameters. Two different base recipes for refill liquids, with three different amounts of nicotine each, were tested using two models of e-cigarettes. Refill liquids were analysed on their content of propylene glycol, glycerol, nicotine and qualitatively on their principal flavourings. Possible health effects of e-cigarette use are not discussed in this work. Electronic cigarettes tested in this study proved to be sources for propylene glycol, glycerol, nicotine, carbonyls and aerosol particulates. The extent of exposure differs significantly for active and passive 'vapers' (users of electronic cigarettes). Extrapolating from the average amounts of propylene glycol and glycerol condensed on the smoking machine filter pad to the resulting lung-concentration, estimated lung concentrations of 160 and 220mgm(-3) for propylene glycol and glycerol were obtained, respectively. Vaping refill liquids with nicotine concentrations of 9mgmL(-1) led to vapour condensate nicotine amounts comparable to those of low-nicotine regular cigarettes (0.15-0.2mg). In chamber studies, peak concentrations of 2200μgm(-3) for propylene glycol, 136μgm(-3) for glycerol and 0.6μgm(-3) for nicotine were reached. Carbonyls were not detected above the detection limits in chamber studies. Particles in the size range of 20nm to 300nm constantly increased during vaping activity and reached final peak concentrations of 7×10(6)particlesL(-1). Moreover, the tested products showed design flaws such as leakages from the cartridge reservoirs. Possible long term effects of e-cigarettes on health are not yet known. E-cigarettes, the impact of vaping on health and the composition of refill liquids require therefore further research into the product characteristics. The consumers would benefit from harmonised quality and safety improvements of e-cigarettes and refill liquids.Tags: (Electronic cigarettes; Mainstream vapour; Passive vaping; Refill liquids)
2013Characteristics associated with awareness, perceptions, and use of electronic nicotine delivery systems among young US Midwestern adultsAmerican journal of public health (p. 1/3/2013)LINKOBJECTIVES: We assessed the characteristics associated with the awareness, perceptions, and use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (e-cigarettes) among young adults. METHODS: We collected data in 2010-2011 from a cohort of 2624 US Midwestern adults aged 20 to 28 years. We assessed awareness and use of e-cigarettes, perceptions of them as a smoking cessation aid, and beliefs about their harmfulness and addictiveness relative to cigarettes and estimated their associations with demographic characteristics, smoking status, and peer smoking. RESULTS: Overall, 69.9% of respondents were aware of e-cigarettes, 7.0% had ever used e-cigarettes, and 1.2% had used e-cigarettes in the past 30 days. Men, current and former smokers, and participants who had at least 1 close friend who smoked were more likely to be aware of and to have used e-cigarettes. Among those who were aware of e-cigarettes, 44.5% agreed e-cigarettes can help people quit smoking, 52.8% agreed e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, and 26.3% agreed e-cigarettes are less addictive than cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Health communication interventions to provide correct information about e-cigarettes and regulation of e-cigarette marketing may be effective in reducing young adults' experimentation with e-cigarettes.
2014Characteristics, perceived side effects and benefits of electronic cigarette use: a worldwide survey of more than 19,000 consumersInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 4/22/2014)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (EC) use has grown exponentially over the past few years. The purpose of this survey was to assess the characteristics and experiences of a large sample of EC users and examine the differences between those who partially and completely substituted smoking with EC use. METHODS: A questionnaire was prepared, translated into 10 different languages and uploaded in an online survey tool. EC users were asked to participate irrespective of their current smoking status. Participants were divided according to their smoking status at the time of participation in two subgroups: former smokers and current smokers. RESULTS: In total, 19,414 participants were included in the analysis, with 88 of them (0.5%) reported not being smokers at the time of EC use initiation. Complete substitution of smoking was reported by 81.0% of participants (former smokers) while current smokers had reduced smoking consumption from 20 to 4 cigarettes per day. They were using ECs for a median of 10 months. They initiated EC use with a median of 18 mg/mL nicotine-concentration liquids; 21.5% used higher than 20 mg/mL. Only 3.5% of participants were using 0-nicotine liquids at the time of the survey. Former smokers were highly dependent (Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence = 7) and were heavier smokers (21 cigarettes per day when smoking) compared to current smokers. The most important reasons for initiating EC use for both subgroups was to reduce the harm associated with smoking and to reduce exposure of family members to second-hand smoking. Most considered ECs as less harmful than tobacco cigarettes, while 11.0% considered them absolutely harmless. Side effects were reported by more than half of the participants (59.8%), with the most common being sore/dry mouth and throat; side effects were mild and in most cases were subsequently resolved (partially or completely). Participants experienced significant benefits in physical status and improvements in pre-existing disease conditions (including respiratory disease such as asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease). Being former smoker was independently associated with positive effects in health and improvements in disease conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this worldwide survey of dedicated users indicate that ECs are mostly used to avoid the harm associated with smoking. They can be effective even in highly-dependent smokers and are used as long-term substitutes for smoking. High levels of nicotine are used at initiation; subsequently, users try to reduce nicotine consumption, with only a small minority using non-nicotine liquids. Side effects are minor and health benefits are substantial, especially for those who completely substitute smoking with EC use. Further population and interventional studies are warranted.
2016Characterization of potential impurities and degradation products in electronic cigarette formulations and aerosolsRegulatory toxicology and pharmacology (p. 1/2/2016)LINKE-cigarettes are gaining popularity in the U.S. as well as in other global markets. Currently, limited published analytical data characterizing e-cigarette formulations (e-liquids) and aerosols exist. While FDA has not published a harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) list for e-cigarettes, the HPHC list for currently regulated tobacco products may be useful to analytically characterize e-cigarette aerosols. For example, most e-cigarette formulations contain propylene glycol and glycerin, which may produce aldehydes when heated. In addition, nicotine-related chemicals have been previously reported as potential e-cigarette formulation impurities. This study determined e-liquid formulation impurities and potentially harmful chemicals in aerosols of select commercial MarkTen(®) e-cigarettes manufactured by NuMark LLC. The potential hazard of the identified formulation impurities and aerosol chemicals was also estimated. E-cigarettes were machine puffed (4-s duration, 55-mL volume, 30-s intervals) to battery exhaustion to maximize aerosol collection. Aerosols analyzed for carbonyls were collected in 20-puff increments to account for analyte instability. Tobacco specific nitrosamines were measured at levels observed in pharmaceutical grade nicotine. Nicotine-related impurities in the e-cigarette formulations were below the identification and qualification thresholds proposed in ICH Guideline Q3B(R2). Levels of potentially harmful chemicals detected in the aerosols were determined to be below published occupational exposure limits.Tags: (Aerosol; E-cigarettes; E-vapor; Formulation; Harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC))
2019Characterization of the Spatial and Temporal Dispersion Differences Between Exhaled E-Cigarette Mist and Cigarette SmokeNicotine & tobacco research (p. 9/19/2019)LINKINTRODUCTION: There are fundamental differences between electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and conventional cigarette product categories with regards to potential environmental exposures, notably that e-cigarettes do not contain tobacco or generate side-stream emissions. Here we assess the spatial and temporal patterns of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol at a bystander's position, and compare it with conventional cigarette smoke emissions. METHODS: Smokers were asked to use e-cigarettes or smoke conventional cigarettes in a room-simulating chamber. Volunteers used the products at different distances from a heated mannequin, representing a bystander, and under different room ventilation rates. Aerosol particle concentrations and size distributions at the bystander's position were measured. RESULTS: For both product categories, the particle concentrations registered following each puff were in the same order of magnitude. However, for e-cigarettes the particle concentration returned rapidly to background values within seconds; for conventional cigarettes it increased with successive puffs, returning to background levels after 30-45 minutes. Unlike for the e-cigarette devices tested, such temporal variation was dependent on the room ventilation rate. Particle size measurements showed that exhaled e-cigarette particles were smaller than those emitted during smoking conventional cigarettes and evaporated almost immediately after exhalation, thus affecting the removal of particles through evaporation rather than displacement by ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences between emissions from the tested e- and conventional cigarettes are reported. Exhaled e-cigarette particles are liquid droplets evaporating rapidly; conventional cigarette smoke particles are far more stable and linger. IMPLICATIONS: • Several factors potentially influencing particle behavior after exhalation of e-cigarette aerosols or emitted during smoking conventional cigarettes were studied.• Differences in particle size between those exhaled following use of e-cigarettes and those emitted during smoking of conventional cigarettes were observed.• E-cigarette particle concentrations decreased rapidly following exhalation due to evaporation.• The removal of particles following smoking conventional cigarettes was much slower and was dependent on the room ventilation rate.
2015Chemical emissions from e-cigarettes: Direct and indirect (passive) exposuresBuilding and environment (p. 11/1/2015)LINKE-cigarettes are marketed as an alternative to smoking tobacco that only produces harmless water vapor, with no adverse impact on indoor air quality. Recent measurements of the chemical emissions from e-cigarettes indicate the following chemicals are inhaled by users and exhaled into the environment where second hand exposures occur; glycols, formaldehyde, nitrosamines, nicotine, and flavorants. For the direct exposure of e-cigarette users, the hazard quotients were exceeded for 7 of the 9 chemicals assessed, while for the indirect (passive) exposure to non-users, the hazard quotient was exceeded for 2 of the 9 chemicals (i.e., propylene glycol and nicotine). The analytical methods for assessing the emissions of formaldehyde and nicotine from e-cigarettes may be providing emission rates that are less than the true emission rates. We conclude that e-cigarettes emit many harmful chemicals into the air and need to be regulated in the same manner as for tobacco smoking. Manufacturers of e-cigarettes have a responsibility to evaluate the safety of their products before offering them for sale (e.g., the precautionary principle), including the health impacts caused by the emissions of formaldehyde, flavorants, and the glycol carrier oils.Tags: (E-cigarettes; Formaldehyde; Nicotine; Nitrosamines; Propylene glycol)
2014Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettesTobacco control (p. 1/5/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). METHODS: Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. RESULTS: The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. CONCLUSIONS: Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes.Tags: (Carcinogens; Electronic nicotine delivery devices; Non-cigarette tobacco products)
2013Chronic idiopathic neutrophilia in a smoker, relieved after smoking cessation with the use of electronic cigarette: a case reportClinical medicine insights. Case reports (p. 1/24/2013)LINKINTRODUCTION: Smoking is a major risk factor for a variety of diseases. Electronic cigarettes are battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine to the lungs by evaporation of a liquid. Chronic idiopathic neutrophilia is a condition characterized by elevated white blood cell and neutrophil counts without any underlying disease; smoking has been implicated as a potential cause. CASE PRESENTATION: A male Caucasian patient, born in 1977, presented in September 2005 with asymptomatic elevation of white blood cell and neutrophil count, and mildly-elevated C-reactive protein levels. He was a smoker since 1996 and was treated with 20 mg/day of simvastatin since 2003 due to hyperlipidemia. Clinical examination, and laboratory and imaging investigations ruled out any infectious, haematological, rheumatological, or endocrine conditions. He was followed-up regularly and was advised to stop smoking. He had 2 unsuccessful attempts to quit smoking; one was unassisted and the second was performed with the use of both varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy (patches). During the subsequent 6.5 years, his leukocyte and C-reactive protein levels were repeatedly elevated; the condition was consistent with chronic idiopathic neutrophilia. In February 2012, he started using electronic cigarettes and he managed to quit smoking within 10 days. After 6 months, laboratory examination showed normalized leukocyte count and C-reactive protein levels, confirmed immediately by a second laboratory and by repeated tests after 1 and 2 months. CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation with the use of electronic cigarette led to reversal of chronic idiopathic neutrophilia. The daily use of electronic cigarette may help preserve the beneficial effects of smoking cessation.Tags: (chronic idiopathic neutrophilia; electronic cigarette; inflammation; smoking; smoking cessation)
2019Cigarette Smoking Blunts Exercise-Induced Heart Rate Response among Young Adult Male SmokersInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 3/21/2019)LINKThis study aimed to examine the exercise-induced heart rate response (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in subjects caused by inhaling smoke from tobacco cigarettes (TC) and aerosolized vapor from electronic nicotine dispensing systems (ENDS) (commonly referred to as e-cigarettes (EC)). A randomized crossover study recruited 24 young adult male smokers with an average age of 23 years and with a smoking habit of at least two years. Heart rate response was recorded after a maximal multistage shuttle 20 m run test (MMST) under three different levels of nicotine: Control 0 mg nicotine of EC (C), 3 mg nicotine of EC (3EC), and 3 mg nicotine of TC (3TC). HRV was evaluated based on the beat-to-beat time interval during the running test. The results showed no statistically significant differences in the run time to exhaustion under the three conditions (C: 398 ± 151 s; 3EC: 399 ± 160 s; 3TC: 381 ± 150 s). Exercise-induced HRR was significantly attenuated under the TC condition (p < 0.05). Intriguingly, the HRV standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) during exercise significantly increased under 3EC and 3TC. The results showed that a significant acute autonomic cardiac modulation during exercise is induced by an acute episode of EC and TC smoking.Tags: (e-cigarette; exercise performance; heart rate response; heart rate variability; tobacco cigarette)
2014Cigarettes vs. e-cigarettes: Passive exposure at home measured by means of airborne marker and biomarkersEnvironmental research (p. 1/11/2014)LINKBACKGROUND: There is scarce evidence about passive exposure to the vapour released or exhaled from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) under real conditions. The aim of this study is to characterise passive exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes' vapour and conventional cigarettes' smoke at home among non-smokers under real-use conditions. METHODS: We conducted an observational study with 54 non-smoker volunteers from different homes: 25 living at home with conventional smokers, 5 living with nicotine e-cigarette users, and 24 from control homes (not using conventional cigarettes neither e-cigarettes). We measured airborne nicotine at home and biomarkers (cotinine in saliva and urine). We calculated geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviations (GSD). We also performed ANOVA and Student's t tests for the log-transformed data. We used Bonferroni-corrected t-tests to control the family error rate for multiple comparisons at 5%. RESULTS: The GMs of airborne nicotine were 0.74 μg/m(3) (GSD=4.05) in the smokers' homes, 0.13 μg/m(3) (GSD=2.4) in the e-cigarettes users' homes, and 0.02 μg/m(3) (GSD=3.51) in the control homes. The GMs of salivary cotinine were 0.38 ng/ml (GSD=2.34) in the smokers' homes, 0.19 ng/ml (GSD=2.17) in the e-cigarettes users' homes, and 0.07 ng/ml (GSD=1.79) in the control homes. Salivary cotinine concentrations of the non-smokers exposed to e-cigarette's vapour at home (all exposed ≥ 2 h/day) were statistically significant different that those found in non-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke ≥ 2 h/day and in non-smokers from control homes. CONCLUSIONS: The airborne markers were statistically higher in conventional cigarette homes than in e-cigarettes homes (5.7 times higher). However, concentrations of both biomarkers among non-smokers exposed to conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes' vapour were statistically similar (only 2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively). The levels of airborne nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the homes with e-cigarette users were higher than control homes (differences statistically significant). Our results show that non-smokers passively exposed to e-cigarettes absorb nicotine.Tags: (Biological markers; Electronic cigarette; Electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS); Tobacco smoke pollution)
2012Clinical laboratory assessment of the abuse liability of an electronic cigaretteAddiction (p. 1/8/2012)LINKAIMS: To provide an initial abuse liability assessment of an electronic cigarette (EC) in current tobacco cigarette smokers. DESIGN: The first of four within-subject sessions was an EC sampling session that involved six, 10-puff bouts (30 seconds inter-puff interval), each bout separated by 30 minutes. In the remaining three sessions participants made choices between 10 EC puffs and varying amounts of money, 10 EC puffs and a varying number of own brand cigarette (OB) puffs, or 10 OB puffs and varying amounts of money using the multiple-choice procedure (MCP). The MCP was completed six times at 30-minute intervals, and one choice was reinforced randomly at each trial. SETTING: Clinical laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty current tobacco cigarette smokers. MEASUREMENTS: Sampling session outcome measures included plasma nicotine, cardiovascular response and subjective effects. Choice session outcome was the cross-over value on the MCP. FINDINGS: EC use resulted in significant nicotine delivery, tobacco abstinence symptom suppression and increased product acceptability ratings. On the MCP, participants chose to receive 10 EC puffs over an average of $1.06 or three OB puffs and chose 10 OB puffs over an average of $1.50 (P < 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Electronic cigarettes can deliver clinically significant amounts of nicotine and reduce cigarette abstinence symptoms and appear to have lower potential for abuse relative to traditional tobacco cigarettes, at least under certain laboratory conditions.
2019Cluster Randomized Trial of Teens Against Tobacco Use: Youth Empowerment for Tobacco Control in El Paso, TexasAmerican journal of preventive medicine (p. 1/11/2019)LINKINTRODUCTION: This study examines smoke-free youth partnerships implementing the Teens Against Tobacco Use model developed by the American Lung Association. This innovative tobacco prevention strategy has not been evaluated rigorously. Students used peer teaching to educate youth about tobacco use and engaged in tobacco control advocacy activities. Participating high school and middle school youth were trained to develop and deliver tobacco prevention presentations to 4th-8th grade students in schools. STUDY DESIGN: To evaluate the efficacy of the presentations, matched pairs of classrooms willing to have 1 presentation were randomly assigned to receive either the presentation first (intervention condition) or later in the school year (control condition). SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: The study took place in a predominantly low-income Hispanic community. A total of 9 schools, 107 classes, and 2,257 students participated in the evaluation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tobacco susceptibility was assessed with a brief survey administered to students in both intervention and control classrooms in 2014 and 2015 after the completion of presentations in intervention classrooms. Analyses completed in 2019 compared intervention and control classrooms on tobacco susceptibility. RESULTS: Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that classrooms receiving a tobacco prevention presentation had significantly lower tobacco susceptibility scores than classrooms that did not receive a presentation (12% vs 17%, p<0.01), representing a 37% reduction in the odds of tobacco susceptibility. Teens Against Tobacco Use presenters also completed tobacco retailer compliance checks and gained media coverage in advocating to regulate e-cigarettes in the same manner as other tobacco products. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest Teens Against Tobacco Use is an effective means of reducing tobacco susceptibility among 4th-8th graders in the immediate term. Longer-term outcome evaluations are needed to determine whether Teens Against Tobacco Use presentations can have a lasting impact on tobacco use. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02443025.
2014Comment on E-cigarettes and cardiovascular risk: beyond science and mysticismSeminars in thrombosis and hemostasis (p. 1/6/2014)LINK
2012Commentary on Wagener et al. (2012): electronic cigarettes - the Holy Grail of nicotine replacement?Addiction (p. 1/9/2012)LINK
2014Comparative in vitro toxicity profile of electronic and tobacco cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and nicotine replacement therapy products: e-liquids, extracts and collected aerosolsInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 10/30/2014)LINKThe use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT) products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic.
2017Comparative tumor promotion assessment of e-cigarette and cigarettes using the in vitro Bhas 42 cell transformation assayEnvironmental and molecular mutagenesis (p. 1/5/2017)LINKIn vitro cell transformation assays (CTA) are used to assess the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and complex mixtures and can detect nongenotoxic as well as genotoxic carcinogens. The Bhas 42 CTA has been developed with both initiation and promotion protocols to distinguish between these two carcinogen classes. Cigarette smoke is known to be carcinogenic and is positive in in vitro genotoxicity assays. Cigarette smoke also contains nongenotoxic carcinogens and is a tumour promoter and cocarcinogen in vivo. We have combined a suite of in vitro assays to compare the relative biological effects of new categories of tobacco and nicotine products with traditional cigarettes. The Bhas promotion assay has been included in this test battery to provide an in vitro surrogate for detecting tumor promoters. The activity of an electronic cigarette (e-cigarette; Vype ePen) was compared to that of a reference cigarette (3R4F) in the promotion assay, using total particulate matter (TPM)/aerosol collected matter (ACM) and aqueous extracts (AqE) of product aerosol emissions. 3R4F TPM was positive in this assay at concentrations ≥6 µg/mL, while e-cigarette ACM did not have any promoter activity. AqE was found to be a lesssuitable test matrix in this assay due to high cytotoxicity. This is the first study to use the Bhas assay to compare tobacco and nicotine products and demonstrates the potential for its future application as part of a product assessment framework. These data add to growing evidence suggesting that e-cigarettes may provide a safer alternative to traditional cigarettes. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:190-198, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Tags: (carcinogenesis; e-cigarettes; in vitro; nongenotoxic; risk assessment; tobacco smoke)
2017Comparing the cancer potencies of emissions from vapourised nicotine products including e-cigarettes with those of tobacco smokeTobacco control (p. 8/4/2017)LINKBACKGROUND: Quantifying relative harm caused by inhaling the aerosol emissions of vapourised nicotine products compared with smoking combustible tobacco is an important issue for public health. METHODS: The cancer potencies of various nicotine-delivering aerosols are modelled using published chemical analyses of emissions and their associated inhalation unit risks. Potencies are compared using a conversion procedure for expressing smoke and e-cigarette vapours in common units. Lifetime cancer risks are calculated from potencies using daily consumption estimates. RESULTS: The aerosols form a spectrum of cancer potencies spanning five orders of magnitude from uncontaminated air to tobacco smoke. E-cigarette emissions span most of this range with the preponderance of products having potencies heat-not-burn > e-cigarettes (normal power)≥nicotine inhaler. CONCLUSIONS: Optimal combinations of device settings, liquid formulation and vaping behaviour normally result in e-cigarette emissions with much less carcinogenic potency than tobacco smoke, notwithstanding there are circumstances in which the cancer risks of e-cigarette emissions can escalate, sometimes substantially. These circumstances are usually avoidable when the causes are known.Tags: (carcinogens; electronic nicotine delivery devices; harm reduction; smoking caused disease)
2012Comparison of electronic cigarette refill fluid cytotoxicity using embryonic and adult modelsReproductive toxicology (p. 1/12/2012)LINKElectronic cigarettes (EC) and refill fluids are distributed with little information on their pre- and postnatal health effects. This study compares the cytotoxicity of EC refill fluids using embryonic and adult cells and examines the chemical characteristics of refill fluids using HPLC. Refill solutions were tested on human embryonic stem cells (hESC), mouse neural stem cells (mNSC), and human pulmonary fibroblasts (hPF) using the MTT assay, and NOAELs and IC(50)s were determined from dose-response curves. Spectral analysis was performed when products of the same flavor had different MTT outcomes. hESC and mNSC were generally more sensitive to refill solutions than hPF. All products from one company were cytotoxic to hESC and mNSC, but non-cytotoxic to hPF. Cytotoxicity was not due to nicotine, but was correlated with the number and concentration of chemicals used to flavor fluids. Additional studies are needed to fully assess the prenatal effect of refill fluids.
2014Comparison of select analytes in exhaled aerosol from e-cigarettes with exhaled smoke from a conventional cigarette and exhaled breathsInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 10/27/2014)LINKExhaled aerosols were collected following the use of two leading U.S. commercial electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and a conventional cigarette by human subjects and analyzed for phenolics, carbonyls, water, glycerin and nicotine using a vacuum-assisted filter pad capture system. Exhaled breath blanks were determined for each subject prior to each product use and aerosol collection session. Distribution and mass balance of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol composition was greater than 99.9% water and glycerin, and a small amount (<0.06%) of nicotine. Total phenolic content in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol was not distinguishable from exhaled breath blanks, while total phenolics in exhaled cigarette smoke were significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol and exhaled breaths, averaging 66 µg/session (range 36 to 117 µg/session). The total carbonyls in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols were also not distinguishable from exhaled breaths or room air blanks. Total carbonyls in exhaled cigarette smoke was significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols, exhaled breath and room air blanks, averaging 242 µg/session (range 136 to 352 µg/session). These results indicate that exhaled e-cigarette aerosol does not increase bystander exposure for phenolics and carbonyls above the levels observed in exhaled breaths of air.
2013Comparison of the cytotoxic potential of cigarette smoke and electronic cigarette vapour extract on cultured myocardial cellsInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 10/16/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been marketed as an alternative-to-smoking habit. Besides chemical studies of the content of EC liquids or vapour, little research has been conducted on their in vitro effects. Smoking is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoke (CS) has well-established cytotoxic effects on myocardial cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of the vapour of 20 EC liquid samples and a base" liquid sample (50% glycerol and 50% propylene glycol" with no nicotine or flavourings) on cultured myocardial cells. Included were 4 samples produced by using cured tobacco leaves in order to extract the tobacco flavour. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was tested according to the ISO 10993-5 standard. By activating an EC device at 3.7 volts (6.2 watts-all samples
2012Comparison of the effects of e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke on indoor air qualityInhalation toxicology (p. 1/10/2012)LINKCONTEXT: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have earned considerable attention recently as an alternative to smoking tobacco, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality have resulted in proposals for bans on indoor e-cigarette use. OBJECTIVE: To assess potential health impacts relating to the use of e-cigarettes, a series of studies were conducted using e-cigarettes and standard tobacco cigarettes. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Four different high nicotine e-liquids were vaporized in two sets of experiments by generic 2-piece e-cigarettes to collect emissions and assess indoor air concentrations of common tobacco smoke by products. Tobacco cigarette smoke tests were conducted for comparison. RESULTS: Comparisons of pollutant concentrations were made between e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke samples. Pollutants included VOCs, carbonyls, PAHs, nicotine, TSNAs, and glycols. From these results, risk analyses were conducted based on dilution into a 40 m³ room and standard toxicological data. Non-cancer risk analysis revealed No Significant Risk" of harm to human health for vapor samples from e-liquids (A-D). In contrast" for tobacco smoke most findings markedly exceeded risk limits indicating a condition of "Significant Risk"" of harm to human health. With regard to cancer risk analysis"
2017Concurrent E-Cigarette Use During Tobacco Dependence Treatment in Primary Care Settings: Association With Smoking Cessation at Three and Six MonthsNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/2/2017)LINKINTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are being used as cessation aids by many smokers despite a lack of empirical evidence regarding their safety and efficacy. We analyzed the association of e-cigarette use and smoking abstinence in a population of smokers accessing standard smoking cessation treatment (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT] plus behavioral counseling) through primary care clinics in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Participants were recruited through 187 primary care clinics across Ontario, Canada and were eligible for up to 26 weeks of brief behavioral counseling and individualized dosing of NRT at no cost. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the association between concurrent e-cigarette use and smoking abstinence at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. RESULTS: Of the 6526 participants who completed a 3-month follow-up, 18.1% reported using an e-cigarette while in treatment. The majority of e-cigarette users (78.2%) reported using an e-cigarette for smoking cessation. At 3-month follow-up, e-cigarette use was negatively associated with abstinence after controlling for confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.706, p < .001, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.607-0.820). E-cigarette use was also negatively associated with abstinence at 6-month follow-up (AOR = 0.502, p < .001, 95% CI = 0.393-0.640). CONCLUSION: E-cigarette use was negatively associated with successful quitting in this large community sample of smokers accessing standard evidence-based smoking cessation treatment through primary care clinics, even after adjusting for covariates such as severity of tobacco dependence, gender, and age. The findings suggest that concurrent use of e-cigarettes with NRT may harm cessation attempts. IMPLICATIONS: This study confirms previous findings from observational studies regarding the negative association between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation, but in a large cohort of smokers enrolled in an evidence-based treatment program. The implications of these findings are that concurrent use of e-cigarettes during a quit attempt utilizing cost-free evidence-based treatment (NRT plus behavioral counseling) does not confer any added benefit and may hamper successful quitting.
2014Connections of nicotine to cancerNature reviews. Cancer (p. 1/6/2014)LINKThis Opinion article discusses emerging evidence of direct contributions of nicotine to cancer onset and growth. The list of cancers reportedly connected to nicotine is expanding and presently includes small-cell and non-small-cell lung carcinomas, as well as head and neck, gastric, pancreatic, gallbladder, liver, colon, breast, cervical, urinary bladder and kidney cancers. The mutagenic and tumour-promoting activities of nicotine may result from its ability to damage the genome, disrupt cellular metabolic processes, and facilitate growth and spreading of transformed cells. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are activated by nicotine, can activate several signalling pathways that can have tumorigenic effects, and these receptors might be able to be targeted for cancer therapy or prevention. There is also growing evidence that the unique genetic makeup of an individual, such as polymorphisms in genes encoding nAChR subunits, might influence the susceptibility of that individual to the pathobiological effects of nicotine. The emerging knowledge about the carcinogenic mechanisms of nicotine action should be considered during the evaluation of regulations on nicotine product manufacturing, distribution and marketing.
2017Correlates of Electronic Cigarettes Use Before and During PregnancyNicotine & tobacco research (p. 5/1/2017)LINKIntroduction: Electronic cigarette use is rapidly gaining in popularity. However, little is known about correlates and reasons for electronic cigarette use by women of reproductive age, a group for which the safety and efficacy of electronic cigarette use is of particular interest. Methods: As part of a clinical trial for smoking cessation, we surveyed pregnant smokers about their lifetime use of electronic cigarettes, previous use of any adjunctive treatments for smoking cessation, and use of electronic cigarettes during pregnancy. We examined associations between electronic cigarette use and participant characteristics. Results: Fifty-three percent (55/103) of participants had previously tried electronic cigarettes. Ever users smoked more cigarettes per day before pregnancy (p = .049), had a greater number of previous quit attempts (p = .033), and were more likely to identify as being Hispanic or non-Hispanic white than never users (p = .027). Fifteen percent of participants (15/103) reported previous use of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation, which was more common than the use of any specific FDA-approved smoking cessation medication. Fourteen percent of participants (14/103) reported electronic cigarette use during pregnancy, most commonly to quit smoking. A history of substance abuse (p = .043) and more previous quit attempts (p = .018) were associated with electronic cigarette use during pregnancy. Conclusions: Use of electronic cigarettes to quit smoking may be common in women of reproductive age, including those who are pregnant. More research is needed to determine the risks and benefits of electronic cigarette use in this population of smokers. Implications: This study shows that electronic cigarettes are used by women of reproductive age, including pregnant smokers. The implications of this finding are that there is an urgent need to examine the risks and benefits of electronic cigarette use, especially by pregnant women. The study also shows that electronic cigarettes are commonly used as a smoking cessation aid in women of reproductive age. The greater likelihood of electronic cigarette use compared to proven adjunctive smoking treatments suggests that electronic cigarettes should be examined as a potential aid to cessation in this population.
2015Counseling patients on the use of electronic cigarettesMayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic (p. 1/1/2015)LINKElectronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have substantially increased in popularity. Clear evidence about the safety of e-cigarettes is lacking, and laboratory experiments and case reports suggest these products may be associated with potential adverse health consequences. The effectiveness of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation is modest and appears to be comparable to the nicotine patch combined with minimal behavioral support. Although a role for e-cigarettes in the treatment of tobacco dependence may emerge in the future, the potential risk of e-cigarettes outweighs their known benefit as a recommended tobacco treatment strategy by clinicians. Patients should be counseled on the known efficacy and potential risks of e-cigarettes.
2013Cytotoxicity evaluation of electronic cigarette vapor extract on cultured mammalian fibroblasts (ClearStream-LIFE): comparison with tobacco cigarette smoke extractInhalation toxicology (p. 1/5/2013)LINKCONTEXT: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are used as alternatives to smoking; however, data on their cytotoxic potential are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cytotoxic potential of 21 EC liquids compared to the effects of cigarette smoke (CS). METHODS: Cytotoxicity was evaluated according to UNI EN ISO 10993-5 standard. By activating an EC device, 200 mg of liquid was evaporated and was extracted in 20 ml of culture medium. CS extract from one cigarette was also produced. The extracts, undiluted (100%) and in five dilutions (50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.125%), were applied to cultured murine fibroblasts (3T3), and viability was measured after 24-hour incubation by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Viability of less than 70% was considered cytotoxic. RESULTS: CS extract showed cytotoxic effects at extract concentrations above 12.5% (viability: 89.1 ± 3.5% at 3.125%, 77.8 ± 1.8% at 6.25%, 72.8 ± 9.7% at 12.5%, 5.9 ± 0.9% at 25%, 9.4 ± 5.3% at 50% and 5.7 ± 0.7% at 100% extract concentration). Range of fibroblast viability for EC vapor extracts was 88.5-117.8% at 3.125%, 86.4-115.3% at 6.25%, 85.8-111.7% at 12.5%, 78.1-106.2% at 25%, 79.0-103.7% at 50% and 51.0-102.2% at 100% extract concentration. One vapor extract was cytotoxic at 100% extract concentration only (viability: 51.0 ± 2.6%). However, even for that liquid, viability was 795% higher relative to CS extract. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that EC vapor is significantly less cytotoxic compared tobacco CS. These results should be validated by clinical studies.
2015Determinants and prevalence of e-cigarette use throughout the European Union: a secondary analysis of 26 566 youth and adults from 27 CountriesTobacco control (p. 1/9/2015)LINKOBJECTIVE: This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of e-cigarette use among persons aged ≥15 years in 27 European Union (EU) member countries during 2012. METHODS: The 2012 Eurobarometer 385 (77.1) survey was analysed for n=26 566 respondents. Knowledge, perception of harm, and determinants of e-cigarettes use were assessed, while separate regression analyses among current (n=7352) and former cigarette smokers (n=5782) were performed. National estimates of the number of e-cigarette users were also extrapolated. RESULTS: 20.3% of current smokers, 4.7% of ex-smokers, and 1.2% of never cigarette smokers in the EU reported having ever used an e-cigarette (overall approximately 29.3 million adults). Among smokers, ever e-cigarette use was more likely among 15-24-year-olds (aOR 3.13, 95% CI 2.22 to 4.54) and 25-39-year-olds (aOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.78) in comparison to older smokers, and among those who smoked 6-10 cigarettes/day (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.13) or 11-20 cigarettes/day (aOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.81) in comparison to very light smokers (≤5 cigarettes/day). Moreover, e-cigarette use was more likely among smokers who had made a past year quit attempt (aOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.67 to 2.58). E-cigarette use among ex-smokers was associated only with the respondents' age, with younger ex-smokers being more likely to have ever used an e-cigarette. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of EU adults have ever used e-cigarettes. Ever users were more likely to be younger, current smokers, or past-year quit attempters. These findings underscore the need to evaluate the potential long term impact of e-cigarette use on consumer health, cessation and nicotine addiction and formulate a European framework for e-cigarette regulation within the revised EU Tobacco Product Directive.Tags: (Global health; Non-cigarette tobacco products; Public opinion; Surveillance and monitoring)
2013Determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometryJournal of chromatography. A (p. 5/24/2013)LINKA liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was described to detect tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in replacement liquids of electronic cigarettes. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) were compared to each other to select the optimum clean-up method. Under the established condition, the limits of quantification of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) were 0.06, 0.07, 0.06, and 0.04μg/L respectively, by using 0.5mL of replacement liquids, respectively, and the relative standard deviation was less than 10% at concentrations of 5.0 and 25.0μg/L. The concentrations of TSNAs were measured in concentration ranges of 0.34-60.08μg/L (64.8% detection frequency) for NNN, 0.22-9.84μg/L (88.6% detection frequency) for NNK, 0.11-11.11μg/L (54.3% detection frequency) for NNB, and 0.09-62.19μg/L (75.2% detection frequency) for NAT in 105 replacement liquid brands from 11 electronic cigarette companies purchased in the Korean market.
2018Developing E-cigarette friendly smoking cessation services in England: staff perspectivesHarm reduction journal (p. 8/3/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: Public health leadership in England has taken a distinctive international stance by identifying the potential public health benefit of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. This includes the development of a ground-breaking set of national guidelines for developing e-cigarette friendly stop smoking services. However, little is known about the views of staff engaged within these services and whether or how such services are becoming e-cigarette friendly. This study aimed to investigate the uptake and usage of e-cigarette guidance, from the perspective of those enacting tobacco cessation interventions 'on the ground'. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 cessation service staff, including advisors (n = 15), managers (n = 5) and commissioners (n = 5) from eight different services in the South-West of England, UK. A thematic analysis of the transcripts was conducted using NVivo software. RESULTS: Although some stop smoking services labelled themselves e-cigarette friendly, there was no consensus over what this should entail. For some, this meant active engagement, such as working with local vape shops, and in the case of one service, offering e-cigarettes through a voucher scheme to disadvantaged groups. For others, an e-cigarette friendly service was conceptualized in a passive sense, as one which welcomed service users using e-cigarettes. Many services did not use the 'e-cigarette friendly' claim in their branding or promotional material. Several discursive themes underlay differing staff attitudes. Those more reluctant to engage framed this in terms of their 'duty of care', with concerns focusing on the addictiveness of nicotine, lack of medically licensed product and ongoing scientific controversy. Those motivated to engage drew on a discourse of social justice goals and 'doing things differently' in relation to lower socio-economic status smokers, those with mental health issues and other vulnerable groups. Strong public health leadership was also identified as a key factor in changing staff attitudes towards e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: On-the-ground enactment of e-cigarette friendly services is varied as well as reflective of the wider policy and regulatory environment. Although the context of English stop smoking services is one of austerity and change, there are opportunities for active engagement with e-cigarettes to achieve overall cessation goals. For this to occur, training, policy consistency and sharing best practice are needed.Tags: (E-cigarettes; Harm reduction; Qualitative; Smoking cessation; Stop smoking services; Tobacco control; Vaping)
2015Development of an in vitro cytotoxicity model for aerosol exposure using 3D reconstructed human airway tissue; application for assessment of e-cigarette aerosolToxicology in vitro (p. 1/10/2015)LINKDevelopment of physiologically relevant test methods to analyse potential irritant effects to the respiratory tract caused by e-cigarette aerosols is required. This paper reports the method development and optimisation of an acute in vitro MTT cytotoxicity assay using human 3D reconstructed airway tissues and an aerosol exposure system. The EpiAirway™ tissue is a highly differentiated in vitro human airway culture derived from primary human tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells grown at the air-liquid interface, which can be exposed to aerosols generated by the VITROCELL® smoking robot. Method development was supported by understanding the compatibility of these tissues within the VITROCELL® system, in terms of airflow (L/min), vacuum rate (mL/min) and exposure time. Dosimetry tools (QCM) were used to measure deposited mass, to confirm the provision of e-cigarette aerosol to the tissues. EpiAirway™ tissues were exposed to cigarette smoke and aerosol generated from two commercial e-cigarettes for up to 6 h. Cigarette smoke reduced cell viability in a time dependent manner to 12% at 6 h. E-cigarette aerosol showed no such decrease in cell viability and displayed similar results to that of the untreated air controls. Applicability of the EpiAirway™ model and exposure system was demonstrated, showing little cytotoxicity from e-cigarette aerosol and different aerosol formulations when compared directly with reference cigarette smoke, over the same exposure time.Tags: (Aerosol; Cytotoxicity; E-cigarettes; EpiAirway™; Human airway; In vitro)
2018Differences in vaping topography in relation to adherence to exclusive electronic cigarette use in veteransPloS one (p. 4/25/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: Understanding vaping patterns of electronic cigarette (EC) use is important to understand the real-life exposure to EC vapor. Long term information on vaping topography in relation to tobacco cigarette (TC) smoking cessation success has not been explored. METHODS: Observational non-blinded study where active TC smokers were asked to replace TC with EC over 4 weeks (replacement phase, RP) followed by exclusive EC use for an additional 12 weeks (maintenance phase, MP). TC use and EC compliance was monitored weekly. Subjects were classified as success or failure whether or not they completed the protocol. Vaping information was stored and downloaded directly from the EC device and averaged per calendar day for analysis. RESULTS: From 25 subjects that followed the protocol, sixteen succeeded in completing the RP and 8 the MP (32%). No significant differences in baseline characteristics were noted between subjects in the success and failure groups including markers of nicotine addiction, plasma cotinine levels or smoking history. Success subjects showed significantly longer puff duration (seconds per vape) and total overall vapor exposure (number of vapes x average vape duration or vape-seconds) in both study phases. Furthermore, subjects in the success group continued to increase the number of vapes, device voltage and wattage significantly as they transitioned into the MP. After an initial drop, subjects in the success group were able to regain plasma cotinine levels comparable to their TC use while subjects in the failure group could not. Cotinine levels significantly correlated with the average number of daily vapes and vapes-seconds, but not with other vaping parameters. CONCLUSION: The topography of smokers who adhere to exclusive EC use reflects a progressive and dynamic device adaptation over weeks to maintain baseline cotinine levels. The higher inhaled volume over time should be considered when addressing the potential toxic effects of EC and the variable EC adherence when addressing public health policies regarding their use.
2018Differential Effects of E-Cigarette on Microvascular Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffness and Oxidative Stress: A Randomized Crossover TrialScientific reports (p. 7/10/2018)LINKPropylene glycol and glycerol are electronic cigarettes vehicles allowing liquid vaporization and nicotine transport. The respective effects of these different constituents on the cardiovascular system are unknown. We assessed the differential effects of vehicles (propylene glycol and glycerol) and nicotine on microcirculatory function, arterial stiffness, hemodynamic parameters and oxidative stress. Twenty-five tobacco smokers were exposed to vaping with and without nicotine, and sham vaping, in a randomized, single blind, 3-period crossover design study. Neither sham-vaping nor vaping in the absence of nicotine resulted in modifications of cardiovascular parameters or oxidative stress. In contrast, vaping with nicotine: 1) impaired acetylcholine mediated vasodilation (mean ± standard error mean) (area under curve, perfusion unit (PU), 3385 ± 27PU to 2271 ± 27PU, p < 0.0001); 2) increased indices of arterial stiffness, namely augmentation index corrected for heart rhythm (-3.5 ± 1.5% to 1.9 ± 2.3%; p = 0.013) and pulse wave velocity (4.9 ± 0.1 m.s-1 to 5.3 ± 0.1 m.s-1; p < 0.0001); 3) increased systolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as heart rate (all p < 0.0001) and finally; 4) raised plasma myeloperoxidase (median [interquartile range]) (13.6 ng.ml-1 [10-17.7] to 18.9 ng.ml-1 [12.2-54.4], p = 0.005). Our findings demonstrated that high temperature e-cigarette vehicle vaporization does not alter micro- and macro-vascular function, and oxidative stress, and that these effects are solely attributable to nicotine.
2015Do Adolescent Smokers Use E-Cigarettes to Help Them Quit? The Sociodemographic Correlates and Cessation Motivations of U.S. Adolescent E-Cigarette UseAmerican journal of health promotion (p. 1/7/2015)LINKPURPOSE: To examine the sociodemographic traits of adolescent e-cigarette users and whether e-cigarettes are used as cessation aids among adolescent smokers. DESIGN: The study had a cross-sectional design. SETTING: Study setting was the United States. SUBJECTS: A probability sample of 15,264 adolescents in grades 6 through 12 was used. MEASURES: The study measured self-reported lifetime e-cigarette use and recent conventional cigarette use, desire to quit, and number of recent quit attempts (among conventional cigarette smokers), and factors hypothesized to be related to e-cigarette use (e.g., race/ethnicity, age, friendships with smokers). ANALYSIS: Logistic regression was used to assess e-cigarette use among (1) all adolescents and (2) conventional cigarette smokers as a function of quit desire and attempts. RESULTS: Descriptive analyses show 3.2% of respondents had used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is significantly lower for females (adjusted odds ratio [OR], .70), non-Hispanic black youth (adjusted OR, .37), and Mexican-American youth (adjusted OR, .56), and higher for those who smoke conventional cigarettes (adjusted OR, 58.44) or have friends who smoke (adjusted OR, 2.38). Among conventional cigarette smokers, neither desire to quit nor recent quit attempts is significantly associated with e-cigarette use. CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette use is more common among certain adolescent subgroups than others and does not appear to be part of a cessation regimen among conventional cigarette smokers wishing to quit. More regulatory and prevention efforts are needed, especially for certain adolescent subpopulations.Tags: (Adolescence; Health Promotion; Health focus: smoking control; Manuscript format: research; Outcome measure: behavioral; Prevention; Prevention Research; Research purpose: modeling/relationship testing and descriptive; Setting: national and school; Smoking; Strategy: behavior change and policy; Study design: survey research; Target population age: youth; Target population circumstances: all education levels, all income levels, all U.S. locations, and all races/ethnicities)
2014Do electronic cigarettes impart a lower potential disease burden than conventional tobacco cigarettes? Review on E-cigarette vapor versus tobacco smokeThe Laryngoscope (p. 1/12/2014)LINKOBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Development and utilization of electronic cigarettes (ECs) resulted from the search for healthier alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes (TCs) and the search for alternative methods for quitting TCs. This review compares the potential disease burden presented by TC smoke to that of EC vapor. METHODS: Potential disease burden of EC vapor versus TC smoke was assessed by reviewing clinical studies that measured inhaled components. Chemicals and carcinogens produced by vapor versus smoke were compared. RESULTS: Studies show that EC vapors contain far less carcinogenic particles than TC smoke. Whereas ECs have the ability to reach peak serum cotinine/nicotine levels comparable to that of TCs, ECs do not cause an increase in total white blood cell count; thus, ECs have the potential to lower the risk of atherosclerosis and systemic inflammation. Use of ECs has been shown to improve indoor air quality in a home exposed to TC smoke. This reduces secondhand smoke exposure, thus having the potential to decrease respiratory illness/asthma, middle-ear disease, sudden infant death syndrome, and more. However, some studies claim that propylene glycol (PG) vapor can induce respiratory irritation and increase chances for asthma. To minimize risks, EC manufacturers are replacing PG with distilled water and glycerin for vapor production. CONCLUSION: Based on the comparison of the chemical analysis of EC and TC carcinogenic profiles and association with health-indicating parameters, ECs impart a lower potential disease burden than conventional TCs.Tags: (Electronic cigarette; carcinogen; disease burden; second-hand smoke exposure; smoke; tobacco cigarette; vaping; vapor)
2018Do flavouring compounds contribute to aldehyde emissions in e-cigarettes?Food and chemical toxicology (p. 1/5/2018)LINKINTRODUCTION: A recent study identified up to 10,000-fold higher aldehyde emissions from flavoured compared to unflavoured e-cigarette liquids. We set to replicate this study and also test similar flavourings with a new-generation e-cigarette device. METHODS: Three liquids with the highest levels of aldehyde emissions in the previous study were tested (in standard and sweetened versions) using the same e-cigarette device and puffing patterns. Additionally, similar flavourings from a different manufacturer were tested using a new-generation e-cigarette device. Unflavoured samples were also tested. RESULTS: Low levels of formaldehyde (8.3-62 μg/g), acetaldehyde (12.1-26.0 μg/g) and acrolein (5.4-19.4 μg/g) were detected, lower by up to 589-fold compared to the previous report. Unflavoured liquid emitted 16.1 μg/g formaldehyde, 5.6 μg/g acetaldehyde and 2.4 μg/g acrolein, significantly lower compared to 2 liquids for formaldehyde and 1 for acrolein. Emissions from the new-generation device were even lower. Aldehyde emissions from all flavoured liquids were 79-99.8% lower than smoking and lower than commonly measured indoor levels and occupational and indoor safety limits. CONCLUSIONS: The e-cigarettes tested herein emit very low levels of aldehydes. Some flavourings may contribute to aldehyde emissions, but the absolute levels were minimal. Validated methods should be used when analysing e-cigarette emissions.Tags: (Aerosol; Aldehydes; E-cigarettes; Flavourings; Smoking)
2013Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping?Indoor air (p. 1/2/2013)LINKUNLABELLED: Electronic cigarette consumption ('vaping') is marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco smoking. Technically, a mixture of chemicals containing carrier liquids, flavors, and optionally nicotine is vaporized and inhaled. The present study aims at the determination of the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and (ultra)fine particles (FP/UFP) from an e-cigarette under near-to-real-use conditions in an 8-m(3) emission test chamber. Furthermore, the inhaled mixture is analyzed in small chambers. An increase in FP/UFP and VOC could be determined after the use of the e-cigarette. Prominent components in the gas-phase are 1,2-propanediol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, diacetin, flavorings, and traces of nicotine. As a consequence, 'passive vaping' must be expected from the consumption of e-cigarettes. Furthermore, the inhaled aerosol undergoes changes in the human lung that is assumed to be attributed to deposition and evaporation. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The consumption of e-cigarettes marks a new source for chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. To evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on indoor air quality and to estimate the possible effect of passive vaping, information about the chemical characteristics of the released vapor is needed.
2013Does e-cigarette consumption cause passive vaping?Indoor air (p. 1/2/2013)LINKUNLABELLED: Electronic cigarette consumption ('vaping') is marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco smoking. Technically, a mixture of chemicals containing carrier liquids, flavors, and optionally nicotine is vaporized and inhaled. The present study aims at the determination of the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and (ultra)fine particles (FP/UFP) from an e-cigarette under near-to-real-use conditions in an 8-m(3) emission test chamber. Furthermore, the inhaled mixture is analyzed in small chambers. An increase in FP/UFP and VOC could be determined after the use of the e-cigarette. Prominent components in the gas-phase are 1,2-propanediol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, diacetin, flavorings, and traces of nicotine. As a consequence, 'passive vaping' must be expected from the consumption of e-cigarettes. Furthermore, the inhaled aerosol undergoes changes in the human lung that is assumed to be attributed to deposition and evaporation. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The consumption of e-cigarettes marks a new source for chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. To evaluate the impact of e-cigarettes on indoor air quality and to estimate the possible effect of passive vaping, information about the chemical characteristics of the released vapor is needed.
2017Does the Regulatory Environment for E-Cigarettes Influence the Effectiveness of E-Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation?: Longitudinal Findings From the ITC Four Country SurveyNicotine & tobacco research (p. 11/1/2017)LINKIntroduction: To date, no studies have explored how different regulatory environments may influence the effectiveness of electronic cigarettes (ECs) as a smoking cessation aid. Objective: This study compares the real-world effectiveness of adult smokers using ECs for quitting compared with quitting unassisted or quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and/or prescription medications in two countries with restrictive policies towards ECs (ie, Canada and Australia) versus two countries with less restrictive policies (ie, United States and United Kingdom). Methods: Data were drawn from the International Tobacco Control Four Country surveys, from the United States and Canada (2 waves, n = 318 and 380, respectively), the United Kingdom (3 waves, n = 439) and Australia (4 waves, n = 662), collected 2010-2014. Smokers at baseline wave who reported making a quit attempt at follow-up were included. The primary outcome was self-reported abstinence for at least 30 days regardless of smoking status at follow-up assessment. Data across waves were combined and analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Results: Compared to unassisted quitting (ie, no medications or ECs), smokers who used ECs for quitting from countries with less restrictive EC policy environments were more likely (OR = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.19-3.20, p < .01), whereas smokers who used ECs for quitting from countries with more restrictive EC policies were less likely (OR = 0.36, 95%CI = 0.18-0.72, p < .01), to report sustained abstinence for at least 30 days. Conclusions: Use of ECs in the real world during a quit attempt appears only effective for sustaining smoking abstinence in a less restrictive EC environment suggesting that the benefits of ECs for smoking cessation are likely highly dependent on the regulatory environment. Implications: What this study adds: This is the first study to examine the impact of regulatory environment for ECs on their real-world effectiveness for smoking cessation. This study shows that in a less restrictive EC regulatory environment, use of ECs during a quit attempt facilitates, but in a more restrictive environment, it inhibits, short-term sustained abstinence. The findings underscore the need for careful consideration on how best to regulate this emerging product so that EC benefits for smoking cessation are maximized and its risks to public health are minimized.
2010Drug therapy for alcohol dependenceThe New England journal of medicine (p. 5/13/1999)LINKRead the latest articles of Drug and Alcohol Dependence at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature
2017E-cig use increases risk of beginning tobacco cigarette use in young adults(p. 12/11/201)LINKYoung adults who use electronic cigarettes are more than four times as likely to begin smoking tobacco cigarettes within 18 months as their peers who do not vape, according to new research. The findings demonstrate that e-cigarettes are serving as a gateway to traditional smoking, contrary to their purported value as a smoking cessation tool. The study is the first nationally representative survey that followed for more than a year people 18 to 30 years old who were initially nonsmokers.
2015E-cigarette ban in enclosed spaces in Wales pushes ahead(p. 6/9/201)LINKPeople will be banned from using e-cigarettes in places like restaurants, pubs and at work in Wales, under new public health laws being unveiled.
2014E-Cigarette Debate Reignites With New Vaping Report(p. 9/6/201)LINK
2019E-cigarette initiation and associated changes in smoking cessation and reduction: the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study, 2013–2015Tobacco control (p. 1/1/2019)LINKBackground The role of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in product transitions has been debated.Methods We used nationally representative data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study waves 1 (2013–2014) and 2 (2014–2015) to investigate the associations between e-cigarette initiation and cigarette cessation/reduction in the USA. We limited the sample to current cigarette smokers aged 25+ years who were not current e-cigarette users at wave 1. We modelled 30-day cigarette cessation and substantial reduction in cigarette consumption as a function of e-cigarette initiation between surveys using multivariable logistic regression.Results Between waves 1 and 2, 6.9% of cigarette smokers who were not current e-cigarette users transitioned to former smokers. After adjusting for covariates, cigarette smokers who initiated e-cigarette use between waves and reported they used e-cigarettes daily at wave 2 had 7.88 (95% CI 4.45 to 13.95) times the odds of 30-day cigarette cessation compared with non-users of e-cigarettes at wave 2. Cigarette smokers who began using e-cigarettes every day and did not achieve cessation had 5.70 (95% CI 3.47 to 9.35) times the odds of reducing their average daily cigarette use by at least 50% between waves 1 and 2 compared with e-cigarette non-users.Conclusions Daily e-cigarette initiators were more likely to have quit smoking cigarettes or reduced use compared with non-users. However, less frequent e-cigarette use was not associated with cigarette cessation/reduction. These results suggest incorporating frequency of e-cigarette use is important for developing a more thorough understanding of the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette cessation.
2014E-cigarette use among smokers with serious mental illnessPloS one (p. 11/24/2014)LINKBACKGROUND: We examined electronic cigarette (EC) use, correlates of use, and associated changes in smoking behavior among smokers with serious mental illness in a clinical trial. METHODS: Adult smokers were recruited during acute psychiatric hospitalization (N = 956, 73% enrollment among approached smokers) in the San Francisco Bay Area between 2009-2013. At baseline, participants averaged 17 (SD = 10) cigarettes per day for 19 (SD = 14) years; 24% intended to quit smoking in the next month. Analyses examined frequency and correlates of EC use reported over the 18-month trial and changes in smoking behavior by EC use status. FINDINGS: EC use was 11% overall, and by year of enrollment, increased from 0% in 2009 to 25% in 2013. In multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of EC use was significantly greater with each additional year of recruitment, for those aged 18-26, and for those in the preparation versus precontemplation stage of change, and unlikely among Hispanic participants. EC use was unrelated to gender, psychiatric diagnosis, and measures of tobacco dependence at baseline. Further, over the 18-month trial, EC use was not associated with changes in smoking status or, among continued smokers, with reductions in cigarettes per day. INTERPRETATION: Within a clinical trial with smokers with serious mental illness, EC use increased over time, particularly among younger adults and those intending to quit tobacco. EC use was unrelated to changes in smoking. The findings are of clinical interest and warrant further study.
2017E-cigarette use and associated changes in population smoking cessation: evidence from US current population surveysBMJ (p. 7/26/2017)LINKObjective To examine whether the increase in use of electronic cigarettes in the USA, which became noticeable around 2010 and increased dramatically by 2014, was associated with a change in overall smoking cessation rate at the population level.Design Population surveys with nationally representative samples.Setting Five of the US Current Population Survey-Tobacco Use Supplement (CPS-TUS) in 2001-02, 2003, 2006-07, 2010-11, and 2014-15.Participants Data on e-cigarette use were obtained from the total sample of the 2014-15 CPS-TUS (n=161 054). Smoking cessation rates were obtained from those who reported smoking cigarettes 12 months before the survey (n=23 270). Rates from 2014-15 CPS-TUS were then compared with those from 2010-11 CPS-TUS (n=27 280) and those from three other previous surveys.Main outcome measures Rate of attempt to quit cigarette smoking and the rate of successfully quitting smoking, defined as having quit smoking for at least three months.Results Of 161 054 respondents to the 2014-15 survey, 22 548 were current smokers and 2136 recent quitters. Among them, 38.2% of current smokers and 49.3% of recent quitters had tried e-cigarettes, and 11.5% and 19.0% used them currently (every day or some days). E-cigarette users were more likely than non-users to attempt to quit smoking, 65.1% v 40.1% (change=25.0%, 95% confidence interval 23.2% to 26.9%), and more likely to succeed in quitting, 8.2% v 4.8% (3.5%, 2.5% to 4.5%). The overall population cessation rate for 2014-15 was significantly higher than that for 2010-11, 5.6% v 4.5% (1.1%, 0.6% to 1.5%), and higher than those for all other survey years (range 4.3-4.5%).Conclusion The substantial increase in e-cigarette use among US adult smokers was associated with a statistically significant increase in the smoking cessation rate at the population level. These findings need to be weighed carefully in regulatory policy making regarding e-cigarettes and in planning tobacco control interventions.
2019E-cigarette use in England 2014-17 as a function of socio-economic profileAddiction (p. 1/2/2019)LINKBACKGROUND AND AIMS: E-cigarettes have the potential either to decrease or increase health inequalities, depending on socio-economic differences in their use and effectiveness. This paper estimated the associations between socio-economic status (SES) and e-cigarette use and examined whether these associations changed between 2014 and 2017. DESIGN: A monthly repeat cross-sectional household survey of adults (16+) between January 2014 and December 2017. This time-period was chosen given that the prevalence of e-cigarette use stabilized in England in late 2013. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the Smoking Toolkit Study, a monthly household survey of smoking and smoking cessation among adults (n = 81 063; mean age = 48.4 years, 49% were women) in England. Subsets included past year smokers (n = 16 232; mean age = 42.8, 46% women), smokers during a quit attempt (n = 5305, mean age = 40.6, 49% women) and long-term ex-smokers (n = 13 562, mean age = 59.3, 44% women). MEASUREMENTS: The outcome measure for the analyses was current e-cigarette use. We also included smokers during a quit attempt where use of an e-cigarette during the most recent quit attempt was the outcome measure. Social grade based on occupation was the SES explanatory variable, using the National Readership Survey classification system of AB (higher and intermediate managerial, administrative and professional), C1 (supervisory, clerical and junior managerial, administrative and professional), C2 (skilled manual workers), D (semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers) and E (state pensioners, casual and lowest-grade workers, unemployed with state benefits only). The analyses were stratified by year to assess the changes in these associations over time. FINDINGS: Among past-year smokers, lower SES groups had lower overall odds of e-cigarette use compared with the highest SES group AB (D: odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval = 0.40-0.71; E: 0.67, 0.50-0.89). These differences in e-cigarette use reduced over time. The use of e-cigarettes during a quit attempt showed no clear temporal or socio-economic patterns. Among long-term ex-smokers, use of e-cigarettes increased from 2014 to 2017 among all groups and use was more likely in SES groups C2 (2.03, 1.08-3.96) and D (2.29, 1.13-4.70) compared with AB. CONCLUSIONS: From 2014 to 2017 in England, e-cigarette use was greater among smokers from higher compared with lower socio-economic status (SES) groups, but this difference attenuated over time. Use during a quit attempt was similar throughout SES groups. Use by long-term ex-smokers increased over time among all groups and was consistently more common in lower SES groups.Tags: (E-cigarettes; epidemiology; health inequalities; public health; socio-economic status; tobacco control)
2018E-cigarette vapour enhances pneumococcal adherence to airway epithelial cellsThe European respiratory journal (p. 1/2/2018)LINKE-cigarette vapour contains free radicals with the potential to induce oxidative stress. Since oxidative stress in airway cells increases platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) expression, and PAFR is co-opted by pneumococci to adhere to host cells, we hypothesised that E-cigarette vapour increases pneumococcal adhesion to airway cells.Nasal epithelial PAFR was assessed in non-vaping controls, and in adults before and after 5 min of vaping. We determined the effect of vapour on oxidative stress-induced, PAFR-dependent pneumococcal adhesion to airway epithelial cells in vitro, and on pneumococcal colonisation in the mouse nasopharynx. Elemental analysis of vapour was done by mass spectrometry, and oxidative potential of vapour assessed by antioxidant depletion in vitroThere was no difference in baseline nasal epithelial PAFR expression between vapers (n=11) and controls (n=6). Vaping increased nasal PAFR expression. Nicotine-containing and nicotine-free E-cigarette vapour increased pneumococcal adhesion to airway cells in vitro Vapour-stimulated adhesion in vitro was attenuated by the PAFR blocker CV3988. Nicotine-containing E-cigarette vapour increased mouse nasal PAFR expression, and nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonisation. Vapour contained redox-active metals, had considerable oxidative activity, and adhesion was attenuated by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine.This study suggests that E-cigarette vapour has the potential to increase susceptibility to pneumococcal infection.
2014E-cigarette versus nicotine inhaler: comparing the perceptions and experiences of inhaled nicotine devicesJournal of general internal medicine (p. 1/11/2014)LINKBACKGROUND: Novel nicotine delivery products, such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), have dramatically grown in popularity despite limited data on safety and benefit. In contrast, the similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved nicotine inhaler is rarely utilized by smokers. Understanding this paradox could be helpful to determine the potential for e-cigarettes as an alternative to tobacco smoking. OBJECTIVE: To compare the e-cigarette with the nicotine inhaler in terms of perceived benefits, harms, appeal, and role in assisting with smoking cessation. DESIGN: A cross-over trial was conducted from 2012 to 2013 PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTIONS: Forty-one current smokers age 18 and older used the e-cigarette and nicotine inhaler each for 3 days, in random order, with a washout period in between. Thirty-eight participants provided data on product use, perceptions, and experiences. MAIN MEASURES: The Modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire (mCEQ) measured satisfaction, reward, and aversion. Subjects were also asked about each product's helpfulness, similarity to cigarettes, acceptability, image, and effectiveness in quitting smoking. Cigarette use was also recorded during the product-use periods. KEY RESULTS: The e-cigarette had a higher total satisfaction score (13.9 vs. 6.8 [p < 0.001]; range for responses 3-21) and higher reward score (15.8 vs. 8.7 [p < 0.001]; range for responses 5-35) than the inhaler. The e-cigarette received higher ratings for helpfulness, acceptability, and coolness." More subjects would use the e-cigarette to make a quit attempt (76 %) than the inhaler (24 %) (p < 0.001). Eighteen percent (7/38) of subjects abstained from smoking during the 3-day periods using the e-cigarette vs. 10 % (4/38) using the inhaler (p = 0.18). CONCLUSION: The e-cigarette was more acceptable" provided more satisfaction
2014E-CigarettesCirculation (p. 5/13/2014)LINK
2017E-cigarettes a gateway to smoking? Not likely(p. 3/13/201)LINKMajor national studies provide little evidence that e-cigarette users move to smoking cigarettes as a result, researchers write.
2014E-cigarettes and cardiovascular risk: beyond science and mysticismSeminars in thrombosis and hemostasis (p. 1/2/2014)LINKCigarette smoking is the most important cause of premature death, and it is currently listed as a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Because of restrictive measures and widespread control policies, tobacco companies are now using aggressive marketing strategies in favor of smokeless tobacco, including electronic nicotine delivery systems, which are also known as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes. Although the regular use of these devices appears less hazardous than traditional cigarettes or other forms of smokeless tobacco, recent studies have shown that various potentially harmful substances, especially nicotine, ultraparticles, and volatile organic compounds, may be effectively inhaled or liberated in exhaled air during repeated e-cigarette puffing. This would enhance the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension, which may predispose some users to increased risk of cardiovascular events, which may be further magnified by other potential adverse effects such as arrhythmias, increased respiratory, and flow respiratory resistance. Some cases of intoxication have also been described, wherein large amounts of nicotine and other harmful compounds may be effectively absorbed. As the use of e-cigarettes is continuously rising, and it is also considered a potentially effective method for smoking cessation, more focused research is urgently needed to definitely establish the cardiovascular safeness of these devices.
2018E-cigarettes and cigarettes worsen peripheral and central hemodynamics as well as arterial stiffness: A randomized, double-blinded pilot studyVascular medicine (p. 1/10/2018)LINKThe introduction of electronic cigarettes has led to widespread discussion on the cardiovascular risks compared to conventional smoking. We therefore conducted a randomized cross-over study of the acute use of three tobacco products, including a control group using a nicotine-free liquid. Fifteen active smokers were studied during and after smoking either a cigarette or an electronic cigarette with or without nicotine (eGo-T CE4 vaporizer). Subjects were blinded to the nicotine content of the electronic cigarette and were followed up for 2 hours after smoking a cigarette or vaping an electronic cigarette. Peripheral and central blood pressures as well as parameters of arterial stiffness were measured by a Mobil-O-Graph® device. The peripheral systolic blood pressure rose significantly for approximately 45 minutes after vaping nicotine-containing liquid ( p<0.05) and for approximately 15 minutes after smoking a conventional cigarette ( p<0.01), whereas nicotine-free liquids did not lead to significant changes during the first hour of follow-up. Likewise, heart rate remained elevated approximately 45 minutes after vaping an electronic cigarette with nicotine-containing liquid and over the first 30 minutes after smoking a cigarette in contrast to controls. Elevation of pulse wave velocity was independent from mean arterial pressure as well as heart rate in the electronic cigarette and cigarette groups. In this first of its kind trial, we observed changes in peripheral and central blood pressure and also in pulse wave velocity after smoking a cigarette as well as after vaping a nicotine-containing electronic cigarette. These findings may be associated with an increased long-term cardiovascular risk.Tags: (arterial stiffness; cigarette; electronic cigarette (e-cigarette); pulse wave velocity; risk stratification; smoking; vaping)
2018E-cigarettes and heated tobacco products: evidence review(p. 2/6/201)LINKAnnual update of Public Health England’s e-cigarette evidence review by leading independent tobacco experts.
2016E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: a systematic review and meta-analysisThe Lancet. Respiratory medicine (p. 1/2/2016)LINKBACKGROUND: Smokers increasingly use e-cigarettes for many reasons, including attempts to quit combustible cigarettes and to use nicotine where smoking is prohibited. We aimed to assess the association between e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking cessation among adult cigarette smokers, irrespective of their motivation for using e-cigarettes. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science were searched between April 27, 2015, and June 17, 2015. Data extracted included study location, design, population, definition and prevalence of e-cigarette use, comparison group (if applicable), cigarette consumption, level of nicotine dependence, other confounders, definition of quitting smoking, and odds of quitting smoking. The primary endpoint was cigarette smoking cessation. Odds of smoking cessation among smokers using e-cigarettes compared with smokers not using e-cigarettes were assessed using a random effects meta-analysis. A modification of the ACROBAT-NRSI tool and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool were used to assess bias. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42015020382). FINDINGS: 38 studies (of 577 studies identified) were included in the systematic review; all 20 studies with control groups (15 cohort studies, three cross-sectional studies, and two clinical trials) were included in random effects meta-analysis and sensitivity analyses. Odds of quitting cigarettes were 28% lower in those who used e-cigarettes compared with those who did not use e-cigarettes (odds ratio [OR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·57-0·91). Association of e-cigarette use with quitting did not significantly differ among studies of all smokers using e-cigarettes (irrespective of interest in quitting cigarettes) compared with studies of only smokers interested in cigarette cessation (OR 0·63, 95% CI 0·45-0·86 vs 0·86, 0·60-1·23; p=0·94). Other study characteristics (design, population, comparison group, control variables, time of exposure assessment, biochemical verification of abstinence, and definition of e-cigarette use) were also not associated with the overall effect size (p≥0·77 in all cases). INTERPRETATION: As currently being used, e-cigarettes are associated with significantly less quitting among smokers. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, FDA Center for Tobacco Products.
2019E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: a prospective study of a national sample of pregnant smokersBMC public health (p. 7/18/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: Smoking during pregnancy has adverse health consequences for the mother and fetus. E-cigarettes could aid with smoking cessation but there is limited research on the prevalence and patterns of e-cigarette use, and their association with smoking cessation among pregnant smokers. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of a text-messaging program for smoking cessation among a U.S. national cohort of pregnant smokers (n = 428). Outcomes assessed were trajectories of e-cigarettes use from baseline to one-month follow-up, and longitudinal association between e-cigarette use at baseline and smoking cessation at one-month follow-up. RESULTS: At baseline, 74 (17.29%) pregnant smokers used e-cigarettes in the past 30 days and 36 (8.41%) used e-cigarettes in the past 7 days. The primary reason stated for using e-cigarettes during pregnancy was for quitting. E-cigarette use between baseline and 1-month was inconsistent. Of 36 dual-users at baseline, 20 (55.56%) stopped using e-cigarettes by the 1-month follow-up and 14 initiated e-cigarette use. There was no evidence of an association between e-cigarette use at baseline and the primary smoking cessation outcome, 7-day point prevalence abstinence [adjusted odds ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence intervals = 0.33-1.92]. CONCLUSIONS: A secondary analysis of a national sample of pregnant smokers indicates that use of e-cigarettes is inconsistent and is not associated with improved smoking cessation outcomes. There is an urgent need to further examine the risk and benefits of e-cigarette use, especially during pregnancy.Tags: (e-cigarettes; mHealth; pregnancy; smoking cessation; text messaging)
2015E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysisPloS one (p. 3/30/2015)LINKBACKGROUND: E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. METHODS: Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97). Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18%) reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28). Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used. LIMITATIONS: Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More randomised controlled trials are needed to assess effectiveness against other cessation methods.
2014E-cigarettes and the future of tobacco controlCA (p. 1/5/2014)LINK
2018E-cigarettes and vaping: policy, regulation and guidance(p. 4/16/201)LINKEvidence on the impact of e-cigarettes, information on government policy and regulation, and guidance for organisations on vaping policies.
2015E-cigarettes around 95% less harmful than tobacco estimates landmark review(p. 8/18/201)LINKExpert independent review concludes that e-cigarettes have potential to help smokers quit.
2017E-cigarettes as a source of toxic and potentially carcinogenic metalsEnvironmental research (p. 1/1/2017)LINKBACKGROUND AND AIMS: The popularity of electronic cigarette devices is growing worldwide. The health impact of e-cigarette use, however, remains unclear. E-cigarettes are marketed as a safer alternative to cigarettes. The aim of this research was the characterization and quantification of toxic metal concentrations in five, nationally popular brands of cig-a-like e-cigarettes. METHODS: We analyzed the cartomizer liquid in 10 cartomizer refills for each of five brands by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). RESULTS: All of the tested metals (cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese and nickel) were found in the e-liquids analyzed. Across all analyzed brands, mean (SD) concentrations ranged from 4.89 (0.893) to 1970 (1540) μg/L for lead, 53.9 (6.95) to 2110 (5220) μg/L for chromium and 58.7 (22.4) to 22,600 (24,400) μg/L for nickel. Manganese concentrations ranged from 28.7 (9.79) to 6910.2 (12,200) μg/L. We found marked variability in nickel and chromium concentration within and between brands, which may come from heating elements. CONCLUSION: Additional research is needed to evaluate whether e-cigarettes represent a relevant exposure pathway for toxic metals in users.Tags: (Carcinogens; Electronic nicotine delivery devices; Non-cigarette tobacco products)
2019E-cigarettes compared with nicotine replacement therapy within the UK Stop Smoking Services: the TEC RCTHealth technology assessment (p. 1/8/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: Over the past few years, a large number of smokers in the UK have stopped smoking with the help of e-cigarettes. So far, UK Stop Smoking Services (SSSs) have been reluctant to include e-cigarettes among their treatment options because data on their efficacy compared with the licensed medications are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the efficacy of refillable e-cigarettes and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products, when accompanied by weekly behavioural support. DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial comparing e-cigarettes and NRT. SETTING: Three sites that provide local SSSs. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 886 smokers seeking help to quit smoking, aged ≥ 18 years, not pregnant or breastfeeding, with no strong preference to use or not to use NRT or e-cigarettes in their quit attempt, and currently not using NRT or e-cigarettes. A total of 886 participants were randomised but two died during the study (one in each study arm) and were not included in the analysis. INTERVENTIONS: The NRT arm (n = 446) received NRT of their choice (single or combination), provided for up to 12 weeks. The e-cigarette arm (n = 438) received an e-cigarette starter pack and were encouraged to buy addtional e-liquids and e-cigarette products of their choice. Both arms received the same standard behavioural support. Participants attended weekly sessions at their SSS and provided outcome data at 4 weeks. They were then followed up by telephone at 6 and 12 months. Participants reporting abstinence or at least 50% reduction in cigarette consumption at 12 months were invited to attend for carbon monoxide (CO) validation. Participants/researchers could not be blinded to the intervention. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was CO-validated sustained abstinence rates at 52 weeks. Participants lost to follow-up or not providing biochemical validation were included as non-abstainers. Secondary outcomes included abstinence at other time points, reduction in smoke intake, treatment adherence and ratings, elicited adverse reactions, and changes in self-reported respiratory health. A cost-efficacy analysis of the intervention was also conducted. RESULTS: The 1-year quit rate was 9.9% in the NRT arm and 18.0% in the e-cigarette arm (risk ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 2.58; p < 0.001). The e-cigarette arm had significantly higher validated quit rates at all time points. Participants in the e-cigarette arm showed significantly better adherence and experienced fewer urges to smoke throughout the initial 4 weeks of their quit attempt than those in the NRT arm, and gave their allocated product more favourable ratings. They were also more likely to be still using their allocated product at 1 year (39.5% vs. 4.3%, χ2 = 161.4; p < 0.001). Participants assigned to e-cigarettes reported significantly less coughing and phlegm at 1 year than those assigned to NRT (controlling for smoking status). A detailed economic analysis confirmed that, because e-cigarettes incur lower NHS costs than NRT and generate a higher quit rate, e-cigarette use is more cost-effective. LIMITATIONS: The results may not be generalisable to other types of smokers or settings, or to cartridge-based e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Within the context of multisession treatment for smokers seeking help, e-cigarettes were significantly more effective than NRT. If SSSs provide e-cigarette starter packs, it is likely to boost their success rates and improve their cost-efficacy. FUTURE WORK: The efficacy of e-cigarettes provided with different levels of support will show whether smokers should be encouraged to switch to vaping within support services or whether e-cigarettes can be recommended with less intensive or no support. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN60477608. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 43. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. The trial was supported by the Cancer Research UK Prevention Trials Unit (grant A16893).Tags: (E-CIGARETTES; NICOTINE; NRT; RCT; SMOKING CESSATION; VAPING)
2017E-cigarettes emit very high formaldehyde levels only in conditions that are aversive to users: A replication study under verified realistic use conditionsFood and chemical toxicology (p. 1/11/2017)LINKPURPOSE: In 2015, a study identified 5-15-fold higher levels of formaldehyde emissions from an old-generation e-cigarette tested at 5.0 V compared to tobacco cigarettes. We set to replicate this study using the same e-cigarette equipment and e-liquid, while checking for the generation of dry puffs. DESIGN: Experienced e-cigarette users (n = 26) took 4 s puffs at different voltage settings and were asked to report the generation of dry puffs. Formaldehyde emissions were measured at both realistic and dry puff conditions. RESULTS: Dry puffs were detected at ≤4.2 V by 88% of participants; thus, 4.0 V was defined as the upper limit of realistic use. Levels ranged from 3.4 (SE = 2.2) μg/10 puffs at 3.3 V to 718.2 (SE = 58.2) μg/10 puffs at 5.0 V. The levels detected at 4.0 V were 19.8 (SE = 5.6) μg/10 puffs. At 4.0 V, the daily exposure to formaldehyde from consuming 3 g of liquid with the device tested would be 32% lower compared to smoking 20 tobacco cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: The high levels of formaldehyde emissions that were reported in a previous study were caused by unrealistic use conditions that create the unpleasant taste of dry puffs to e-cigarette users and are thus avoided.Tags: (Aerosol; Dry puff; Electronic cigarette; Formaldehyde; Smoking)
2016E-cigarettes for the management of nicotine addictionSubstance abuse and rehabilitation (p. 8/18/2016)LINKIn this review, we discuss current evidence on electronic cigarettes (ECs), a rapidly evolving class of nicotine delivery system, and their role in managing nicotine addiction, specifically in helping smokers to quit smoking and/or reduce the amount of tobacco they smoke. The current evidence base is limited to three randomized trials (only one compares ECs with nicotine replacement therapy) and a growing number of EC user surveys (n=6), case reports (n=4), and cohort studies (n=8). Collectively, these studies suggest modest cessation efficacy and a few adverse effects, at least with the short-term use. On this basis, we provide advice for health care providers on providing balanced information for patients who enquire about ECs. More research, specifically well-conducted large efficacy trials comparing ECs with standard smoking cessation management (eg, nicotine replacement therapy plus behavioral support) and long-term prospective studies for adverse events, are urgently needed to fill critical knowledge gaps on these products.Tags: (addiction; cessation; electronic cigarettes; nicotine; smoking; tobacco)
2015E-cigarettes generate high levels of aldehydes only in 'dry puff' conditionsAddiction (p. 1/8/2015)LINKBACKGROUND AND AIMS: Aldehydes are emitted by electronic cigarettes due to thermal decomposition of liquid components. Although elevated levels have been reported with new-generation high-power devices, it is unclear whether they are relevant to true exposure of users (vapers) because overheating produces an unpleasant taste, called a dry puff, which vapers learn to avoid. The aim was to evaluate aldehyde emissions at different power levels associated with normal and dry puff conditions. DESIGN: Two customizable atomizers were prepared so that one (A1) had a double wick, resulting in high liquid supply and lower chance of overheating at high power levels, while the other (A2) was a conventional setup (single wick). Experienced vapers took 4-s puffs at 6.5 watts (W), 7.5 W, 9 W and 10 W power levels with both atomizers and were asked to report whether dry puffs were generated. The atomizers were then attached to a smoking machine and aerosol was trapped. SETTING: Clinic office and analytical chemistry laboratory in Greece. PARTICIPANTS: Seven experienced vapers. MEASUREMENTS: Aldehyde levels were measured in the aerosol. FINDINGS: All vapers identified dry puff conditions at 9 W and 10 W with A2. A1 did not lead to dry puffs at any power level. Minimal amounts of aldehydes per 10 puffs were found at all power levels with A1 (up to 11.3 µg for formaldehyde, 4.5 µg for acetaldehyde and 1.0 µg for acrolein) and at 6.5 W and 7.5 W with A2 (up to 3.7 µg for formaldehyde, 0.8 µg for acetaldehyde and 1.3 µg for acrolein). The levels were increased by 30 to 250 times in dry puff conditions (up to 344.6 µg for formaldehyde, 206.3 µg for acetaldehyde and 210.4 µg for acrolein, P < 0.001), while acetone was detected only in dry puff conditions (up to 22.5 µg). CONCLUSIONS: Electronic cigarettes produce high levels of aldehyde only in dry puff conditions, in which the liquid overheats, causing a strong unpleasant taste that e-cigarette users detect and avoid. Under normal vaping conditions aldehyde emissions are minimal, even in new-generation high-power e-cigarettes.Tags: (Acetaldehyde; Electronic cigarette; acetone; acrolein; aerosol; aldehydes; dry puff; formaldehyde)
2017E-cigarettes inquiry(p. 12/7/201)LINKThe House of Commons Science and Technology Committee has examined the impact of electronic cigarettes on human health, the suitability of regulations guiding their use, and the financial implications of a growing market on both business and the NHS.
2019E-cigarettes May Support Smokers With High Smoking-Related Risk Awareness to Stop Smoking in the Short Run: Preliminary Results by Randomized Controlled TrialNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/1/2019)LINKIntroduction: E-cigarettes may be positively used in tobacco cessation treatments. However, neither the World Health Organization nor the American Food and Drug Administration has recognized them as effective cessation aids. Data about the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes are still limited and controversial. Methods: This was a double-blind randomized controlled study. The main focus of this article is on a secondary outcome of the study, that is, the assessment of effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes in achieving smoking cessation in a group of chronic smokers voluntarily involved in long-term lung cancer screening. Participants were randomized into three arms with a 1:1:1 ratio: e-cigarettes (Arm 1), placebo (Arm 2), and control (Arm 3). All subjects also received a low-intensity counseling. Results: Two hundred ten smokers were randomized (70 to nicotine e-cigarettes, 70 nicotine-free placebo e-cigarettes, and 70 to control groups). About 25% of participants who followed a cessation program based on the use of e-cigarettes (Arm 1 and Arm 2) were abstinent after 3 months. Conversely, only about 10% of smokers in Arm 3 stopped. A Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences in daily cigarettes smoking across the three arms (K-W = 6.277, p = .043). In particular, participants in Arm 1 reported a higher reduction rate (M = -11.6441, SD = 7.574) than participants in Arm 2 (M = -10.7636, SD = 8.156) and Arm 3 (M = -9.1379, SD = 8.8127). Conclusions: Our findings support the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes in a short-term period. E-cigarettes use led to a higher cessation rate. Furthermore, although all participants reported a significant reduction of daily cigarette consumption compared to the baseline, the use of e-cigarettes (including those without nicotine) allowed smokers to achieve better results. Implications: E-cigarettes increased the stopping rate as well as the reduction of daily cigarettes in participants who continued smoking. In fact, although all participants reported a significant reduction of tobacco consumption compared to the baseline, the use of e-cigarettes allowed smokers to achieve a better result. It could be worthwhile to associate this device with new ICT-driven models of self-management support in order to enable people to better handle behavioral changes and side effects. This is true for ready-to-quit smokers (such as our participants) but can also be advantageous for less motivated smokers engaged in clinical settings.
2014E-cigarettes more effective than patches to help quit smoking, says study(p. 5/20/201)LINKStudy challenges negative views of health experts who argue that allowing use of e-cigarettes risks re-normalising tobacco
2015E-cigarettes need to be tested for safety under realistic conditionsAddiction (p. 1/10/2015)LINKTags: (Atomiser; cancer risk; dry puff; e-cigarettes; e-liquid; formaldehyde)
2017E-Cigarettes Use Behavior and Experience of Adults: Qualitative Research Findings to Inform E-Cigarette Use Measure DevelopmentNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/2/2017)LINKOBJECTIVES: To gain a better understanding of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use behavior and experience among adult e-cigarette users, with the goal of informing development of future e-cigarette use measures. METHODS: Between August and October 2014 six focus groups were conducted in Seattle. Participants (63% male; 60% >35 years old; 60% White): e-cigarette users who used combustible tobacco products either currently or in the past. E-cigarette discussion topics covered: their daily use pattern (eg, frequency), product-related characteristics (eg, nicotine levels), and perceptions about health risks and benefits. RESULTS: Participants' descriptions of daily use were so varied that no common unit" of a ""session"" easily summarized frequency or quantity of typical e-cigarette use. Most users had difficulty in tracking their own use. Participants reported nicotine craving relief when using e-cigarettes"
2015E-cigarettes: a consumer-led revolution(p. 10/23/201)LINKE-cigarettes are used by millions in the UK, but information about them is sometimes conflicting. So what is the current evidence on them?
2015E-cigarettes: a disruptive technology that revolutionizes our field?Nicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/2/2015)LINK
2015E-cigarettes: Considerations for the otolaryngologistInternational journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology (p. 1/8/2015)LINKPURPOSE: To review the literature regarding electronic cigarettes and discuss potential implications and need for advocacy for the pediatric otolaryngologist. BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine-containing vapors via inhalation. Research on the health related consequences of e-cigarettes is ongoing and safety has yet to be established. E-cigarettes are not presently under the regulation of any national governing body with wide accessibility to minors. Use of these products has substantially increased since arrival to the market, particularly within the adolescent population. These products are marketed via various platforms including television, Internet and social media. Hundreds of flavors are offered and e-cigarettes are packaged in various colors. Not only are the ill health effects and addictive quality of nicotine concerning, these products have the potential to serve as a gateway for minors to tobacco use. APPLICATIONS: The relationship between tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure and otolaryngology specific diseases has well been defined. As use of electronic cigarettes increases, pediatric otolaryngologists should be aware of the ongoing literature regarding these products and to be prepared to counsel families accordingly. CONCLUSIONS: The use of e-cigarettes among teenagers, potential implications of secondhand vapor exposure from parents and friends, and concerns this may encourage adolescents to utilize conventional tobacco products needs to be considered.Tags: (Adolescents; E-cigarettes; Electronic cigarettes; Tobacco cigarettes; Vapor)
2015E-cigarettes: methodological and ideological issues and research prioritiesBMC medicine (p. 2/16/2015)LINKCigarette combustion, rather than either tobacco or nicotine, is the cause of a public health disaster. Fortunately, several new technologies that vaporize nicotine or tobacco, and may make cigarettes obsolete, have recently appeared. Research priorities include the effects of vaporizers on smoking cessation and initiation, their safety and toxicity, use by non-smokers, dual use of vaporizers and cigarettes, passive vaping, renormalization of smoking, and the development of messages that effectively communicate the continuum of risk for tobacco and nicotine products. A major difficulty is that we are chasing a moving target. New products constantly appear, and research results are often obsolete by the time they are published. Vaporizers do not need to be safe, only safer than cigarettes. However, harm reduction principles are often misunderstood or rejected. In the context of a fierce ideological debate, and major investments by the tobacco industry, it is crucial that independent researchers provide regulators and the public with evidence-based guidance. The methodological and ideological hurdles on this path are discussed in this commentary.
2013E-cigarettes: prevalence and attitudes in Great BritainNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/10/2013)LINKINTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a means of recreational nicotine use that can potentially eliminate the need to smoke tobacco. Little is known about the prevalence of use or smokers' attitudes toward e-cigarettes. This study describes use of and attitudes toward e-cigarettes in Britain. METHODS: Respondents from three surveys were recruited from a panel of adults in Britain. Preliminary online and face-to-face qualitative research informed the development of a smokers' survey (486 smokers who had used e-cigarettes and 894 smokers who had not). Representative samples of adults in Britain were then constructed from the panel for population surveys in 2010 (12,597 adults, including 2,297 smokers) and 2012 (12,432 adults, including 2,093 smokers), generating estimates of the prevalence of e-cigarette use and trial in Great Britain. RESULTS: Awareness, trial, and current use increased between 2010 and 2012; for example, current use more than doubled from 2.7% of smokers in 2010 to 6.7% in 2012. The proportion of ever-users currently using e-cigarettes was around one-third in both years. In 2012, 1.1% of ex-smokers reported current e-cigarette use, and a further 2.7% reported past use. Approximately 0.5% of never-smokers reported having tried e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: While we found evidence supporting the view that e-cigarette use may be a bridge to quitting, we found very little evidence of e-cigarette use among adults who had never smoked. British smokers would benefit from information about the effective use, risks, and benefits of e-cigarettes, as this might enable the use of e-cigarettes to improve public health.
2015E-cigarettes: Safe to recommend to patients?Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine (p. 1/8/2015)LINKElectronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes)--devices that generate a nicotine vapor that can be inhaled by the user in a fashion that mimics the experience of smoking--are increasing in popularity, and many people seem to view them as reasonable alternatives to nicotine replacement therapy to help them refrain from smoking. Physicians should not encourage such a view. E-cigarettes are unregulated nicotine delivery systems that have never been subjected to any kind of testing of safety or of efficacy as nicotine replacement therapy. Moreover, for young people who have never smoked, these devices could potentially serve as a gateway drug.
2020Editing the International Journal of Drug PolicyThe International journal on drug policy (p. 1/2/2020)LINKRead the latest articles of International Journal of Drug Policy at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature
2020Editing the International Journal of Drug PolicyThe International journal on drug policy (p. 1/2/2020)LINKRead the latest articles of International Journal of Drug Policy at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature
2011Effect of a nicotine-free inhalator as part of a smoking-cessation programmeThe European respiratory journal (p. 1/11/2011)LINKSmoking-cessation drugs are inadequate at addressing the behavioural component of tobacco dependence. Nicotine-free inhalators are plastic devices that may provide a coping mechanism for conditioned smoking by replacing some of the rituals associated with smoking gestures. This study assessed the effect of using a nicotine-free inhalator to improve success in a cessation programme. At baseline, 120 smokers attending a smoking-cessation programme were assessed for their sociodemographic factors, smoking history, depression, physical and behavioural dependence, and motivation. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups, nicotine-free inhalator group (PAIPO; Echos Srl, Milan, Italy) versus reference group. For the whole sample, no significant difference was found in quit rates at 24 weeks between the PAIPO group and the reference group. However, the quit rate in the PAIPO group (66.7%) was more than three-fold higher than the reference group (19.2%) for those individuals with high Glover-Nilsson Smoking Behavioural Questionnaire (GN-SBQ) scores at baseline. The results of the logistic model analysis indicate that a high GN-SBQ score is a strong independent predictor for successful quitting at 24 weeks (OR 8.88; 95% CI 2.08-37.94) in the PAIPO group. Nicotine-free inhalators may be beneficial when used in the context of smoking-cessation interventions, particularly for those smokers for whom handling and manipulation of their cigarettes plays an important part in the ritual of smoking.
2011Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot studyBMC public health (p. 10/11/2011)LINKBACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. Therefore, improved approaches to smoking cessation are necessary. The electronic-cigarette (e-Cigarette), a battery-powered electronic nicotine delivery device (ENDD) resembling a cigarette, may help smokers to remain abstinent during their quit attempt or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy and safety of these devices in long-term smoking cessation and/or smoking reduction studies have never been investigated. METHODS: In this prospective proof-of-concept study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 40 regular smokers (unwilling to quit) experimenting the 'Categoria' e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend a total of five study visits: at baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 and week-24. Product use, number of cigarettes smoked, and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels were measured at each visit. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events and product preferences were also reviewed. RESULTS: Sustained 50% reduction in the number of cig/day at week-24 was shown in 13/40(32.5%) participants; their median of 25 cigs/day decreasing to 6 cigs/day (p < 0.001). Sustained 80% reduction was shown in 5/40(12.5%) participants; their median of 30 cigs/day decreasing to 3 cigs/day (p = 0.043). Sustained smoking abstinence at week-24 was observed in 9/40(22.5%) participants, with 6/9 still using the e-Cigarette by the end of the study. Combined sustained 50% reduction and smoking abstinence was shown in 22/40 (55%) participants, with an overall 88% fall in cigs/day. Mouth (20.6%) and throat (32.4%) irritation, and dry cough (32.4%) were common, but diminished substantially by week-24. Overall, 2 to 3 cartridges/day were used throughout the study. Participants' perception and acceptance of the product was good. CONCLUSION: The use of e-Cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in smokers not intending to quit (http://ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01195597).
2016Effect of continuous smoking reduction and abstinence on blood pressure and heart rate in smokers switching to electronic cigarettesInternal and emergency medicine (p. 1/2/2016)LINKWe present prospective blood pressure (BP) and hear rate (HR) changes in smokers invited to switch to e-cigarettes in the ECLAT study. BP and HR changes were compared among (1) different study groups (users of high, low, and zero nicotine products) and (2) pooled continuous smoking phenotype classification (same phenotype from week 12 to -52), with participants classified as quitters (completely quit smoking), reducers (≥50% reduction in smoking consumption) and failures (<50% or no reduction in smoking consumption). Additionally, the latter comparison was repeated in a subgroup of participants with elevated BP at baseline. No significant changes were observed among study groups for systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HR. In 145 subjects with a continuous smoking phenotype, we observed lower systolic BP at week 52 compared to baseline but no effect of smoking phenotype classification. When the same analysis was repeated in 66 subjects with elevated BP at baseline, a substantial reduction in systolic BP was observed at week 52 compared to baseline (132.4 ± 12.0 vs. 141.2 ± 10.5 mmHg, p < 0.001), with a significant effect found for smoking phenotype classification. After adjusting for weight change, gender and age, reduction in systolic BP from baseline at week 52 remains associated significantly with both smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. In conclusion, smokers who reduce or quit smoking by switching to e-cigarettes may lower their systolic BP in the long term, and this reduction is apparent in smokers with elevated BP. The current study adds to the evidence that quitting smoking with the use of e-cigarettes does not lead to higher BP values, and this is independently observed whether e-cigarettes are regularly used or not.Tags: (Blood pressure; Electronic cigarette; Heart rate; Smoking cessation; Smoking reduction; Tobacco harm reduction)
2020Effect of e-cigarette flavors on nicotine delivery and puffing topography: results from a randomized clinical trial of daily smokersPsychopharmacology (p. 1/2/2020)LINKRATIONALE: There is limited understanding regarding how various e-cigarette flavorings may influence the behavior of non-regular e-cigarette users who are regular cigarette smokers. OBJECTIVES: To assess differences in nicotine delivery, puffing topography, subjective effects, and user satisfaction from different flavored e-liquids. METHODS: Eighteen daily smokers (average age, 44.1 ± 7.0; 9 males; average CPD, 13.0 ± 5.8) smoked their tobacco cigarettes during an initial visit and returned five times to try an e-cigarette (eGo type) refilled with a nicotine solution (24 mg/ml) of five different flavors: cherry, tobacco, espresso, menthol, and vanilla (randomized order). Assessments at each visit included puffing topography, blood samples for nicotine analysis, and subjective reports of nicotine effects and flavor satisfaction. RESULTS: Vaping different flavors resulted in different levels of plasma nicotine. The flavor producing the highest plasma nicotine concentration (Cmax) was cherry (median 21.2 ng/ml), which was not significantly different than nicotine delivery from a combustible cigarette (29.2 ng/ml, p > .05). Vanilla e-liquid produced the lowest Cmax (9.7 ng/ml), and participants tended to puff less frequently on vanilla compared to tobacco flavor (p = .013). Flavors did not differ significantly in the speed of nicotine delivery (Tmax). During controlled use, puff duration for all flavors was significantly longer than a combustible cigarette (p < 0.05). After controlling for nicotine delivery, significant differences in flavor enjoyment were detected. Menthol flavored e-liquid was rated as more enjoyable than vanilla and tobacco flavored e-liquids (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Flavors tested in this study yielded different patterns of nicotine delivery and led to differences in reduction in smoking urges. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: #NCT02575885.Tags: (E-cigarettes; Electronic cigarettes; Flavors; Nicotine; Vaping; Vaporizers)
2010Effect of smoke-free cigarettes on 24 h cigarette withdrawal: a double-blind placebo-controlled studyPsychopharmacology (p. 1989)LINKIn a double-blind randomised trial, 40 cigarette smokers used either nicotine-containing or placebo smoke-free cigarettes during 24 h abstinence from smoking. Subjects in the nicotine group experienced smaller increases in irritability and difficulty concentrating and fewer urges to smoke than those who received placebo. Nicotine smoke-free cigarettes were rated as more satisfying, more helpful and more effective in relieving craving than placebo. After 24 h use nicotine smoke-free cigarettes provided average blood nicotine levels of 6.3 ng/ml, i.e., 29.2% of smoking levels. The most frequent side effects were irritation of the throat and coughing. Overall, side effects were rated as not serious. Although the smoke-free cigarette in its present form is not very efficient in delivering nicotine, it was effective in alleviating initial tobacco withdrawal. It is possible that by providing both nicotine and behavioural" replacement it may be particularly useful in the first stages of stopping smoking. The product is worth further investigation."""
2014Effect of smoking abstinence and reduction in asthmatic smokers switching to electronic cigarettes: evidence for harm reversalInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 5/8/2014)LINKElectronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes and have shown to reduce their consumption. Here we report for the first time the effects of e-cigs on subjective and objective asthma parameters as well as tolerability in asthmatic smokers who quit or reduced their tobacco consumption by switching to these products. We retrospectively reviewed changes in spirometry data, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), asthma exacerbations and subjective asthma control in smoking asthmatics who switched to regular e-cig use. Measurements were taken prior to switching (baseline) and at two consecutive visits (Follow-up/1 at 6 (±1) and Follow-up/2 at 12 (±2) months). Eighteen smoking asthmatics (10 single users, eight dual users) were identified. Overall there were significant improvements in spirometry data, asthma control and AHR. These positive outcomes were noted in single and dual users. Reduction in exacerbation rates was reported, but was not significant. No severe adverse events were noted. This small retrospective study indicates that regular use of e-cigs to substitute smoking is associated with objective and subjective improvements in asthma outcomes. Considering that e-cig use is reportedly less harmful than conventional smoking and can lead to reduced cigarette consumption with subsequent improvements in asthma outcomes, this study shows that e-cigs can be a valid option for asthmatic patients who cannot quit smoking by other methods.
2016Effect of variable power levels on the yield of total aerosol mass and formation of aldehydes in e-cigarette aerosolsRegulatory toxicology and pharmacology (p. 1/3/2016)LINKThe study objective was to determine the effect of variable power applied to the atomizer of refillable tank based e-cigarette (EC) devices. Five different devices were evaluated, each at four power levels. Aerosol yield results are reported for each set of 25 EC puffs, as mass/puff, and normalized for the power applied to the coil, in mass/watt. The range of aerosol produced on a per puff basis ranged from 1.5 to 28 mg, and, normalized for power applied to the coil, ranged from 0.27 to 1.1 mg/watt. Aerosol samples were also analyzed for the production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, as DNPH derivatives, at each power level. When reported on mass basis, three of the devices showed an increase in total aldehyde yield with increasing power applied to the coil, while two of the devices showed the opposite trend. The mass of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein produced per gram of total aerosol produced ranged from 0.01 to 7.3 mg/g, 0.006 to 5.8 mg/g, and <0.003 to 0.78 mg/g, respectively. These results were used to estimate daily exposure to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein from EC aerosols from specific devices, and were compared to estimated exposure from consumption of cigarettes, to occupational and workplace limits, and to previously reported results from other researchers.Tags: (2,4-DNPH derivatives of aldehydes; Acetaldehyde; Acrolein; Chemical composition; Electronic nicotine delivery systems; Electronic-cigarettes; Formaldehyde; Liquid chromatography; Toxicology)
2014Effectiveness and tolerability of electronic cigarette in real-life: a 24-month prospective observational studyInternal and emergency medicine (p. 1/8/2014)LINKElectronic cigarettes (e-Cigarette) are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine that may aid smokers to quit or reduce their cigarette consumption. Research on e-Cigarettes is urgently needed to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are evidence based. Here we assessed long-term effectiveness and tolerability of e-Cigarette used in a 'naturalistic' setting. This prospective observational study evaluated smoking reduction/abstinence in smokers not intending to quit using an e-Cigarette ('Categoria'; Arbi Group, Italy). After an intervention phase of 6 months, during which e-Cigarette use was provided on a regular basis, cigarettes per day (cig/day) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels were followed up in an observation phase at 18 and 24 months. Efficacy measures included: (a) ≥50% reduction in the number of cig/day from baseline, defined as self-reported reduction in the number of cig/day (≥50%) compared to baseline; (b) ≥80% reduction in the number of cig/day from baseline, defined as self-reported reduction in the number of cig/day (≥80%) compared to baseline; (c) abstinence from smoking, defined as complete self-reported abstinence from tobacco smoking (together with an eCO concentration of ≤10 ppm). Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were computed, and adverse events reviewed. Of the 40 subjects, 17 were lost to follow-up at 24 months. A >50% reduction in the number of cig/day at 24 months was shown in 11/40 (27.5%) participants with a median of 24 cig/day use at baseline decreasing significantly to 4 cig/day (p = 0.003). Smoking abstinence was reported in 5/40 (12.5%) participants while combined >50% reduction and smoking abstinence was observed in 16/40 (40%) participants at 24 months. Five subjects stopped e-Cigarette use (and stayed quit), three relapsed back to tobacco smoking and four upgraded to more performing products by 24 months. Only some mouth irritation, throat irritation, and dry cough were reported. Withdrawal symptoms were uncommon. Long-term e-Cigarette use can substantially decrease cigarette consumption in smokers not willing to quit and is well tolerated. ( http://ClinicalTrials.govnumberNCT01195597 ).
2018Effectiveness of adjunctive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in reducing peri-implant inflammatory response in individuals vaping electronic cigarettes: A randomized controlled clinical trialPhotodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy (p. 1/6/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: There are no studies that have assessed the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in reducing peri-implant inflammatory response in individuals vaping electronic cigarettes (e-cigs). This study explored the effectiveness of aPDT as an adjunct to mechanical debridement (MD) in the treatment of peri-implant mucositis (p-iM) in individuals vaping e-cigs. METHODS: Vaping individuals with p-iM were divided into 2 groups: (a) Group-I: receiving MD with aPDT (test group); and (b) Group-II: MD only (control group). Peri-implant inflammatory parameters including plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BoP), and pocket depth (PD) were assessed at baseline and 12-weeks follow-up. Inter- and intra-group comparisons were made using Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Thirty-eight male patients (20 in Group-I and 18 in Group-II) were included. The mean age of vaping individuals in groups I and II were 33.6 ± 2.8 and 35.4 ± 2.1 years, respectively. Mean daily frequency of vaping e-cigs in groups I and II was 7.3 ± 0.9 and 5.9 ± 1.0 whereas mean duration of vaping e-cigs was 4.8 ± 1.5 and 4.1 ± 1.3 years respectively. There was no significant difference between groups at baseline. There was significant improvement in PI (p < 0.001) and PD (p < 0.001) at 12-weeks follow-up with respect to the baseline visit in both groups. There was a significant reduction in PI (p < 0.001) and PD (p < 0.001) for group-I as compared to group-II at follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference for BoP between groups at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Antimicrobial PDT is more effective compared to MD alone in the treatment of p-iM in individuals vaping e-cigs. The findings of the present study should be considered preliminary and interpreted with caution. Further randomized clinical trials should be performed in order to obtain strong conclusions.Tags: (Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy; Electronic cigarettes; Implantology; Peri-implant mucositis; Randomized clinical trial)
2019Effects of a Nicotine Fact Sheet on Perceived Risk of Nicotine and E-Cigarettes and Intentions to Seek Information About and Use E-CigarettesInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 12/23/2019)LINKWe examined how a nicotine fact sheet influenced smokers' beliefs about nicotine and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), a potentially less harmful alternative to conventional cigarettes. In an exploratory online experiment, 756 US adult current and recent former smokers (quit in the past 2 years) were randomized to view a nicotine fact sheet or control messages (bottled water ads). Effects of the nicotine fact sheet on perceived nicotine addictiveness, nicotine risk, comparative risk of e-cigarettes, and dual use intentions were analyzed using log-Poisson regression with robust error. Linear regression analyzed effects on perceived absolute risk and switching and information seeking intentions about e-cigarettes. Compared to control, the nicotine fact sheet doubled the probability of disagreeing that nicotine is the main cause of smoking-related disease (26.2% vs. 12.7%, RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.51, 2.82, p < 0.001). However, nearly three quarters of participants viewing the nicotine fact sheet still thought that nicotine is the main cause of smoking-related disease. The nicotine fact sheet increased smokers' intentions to seek information about e-cigarettes (b = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.74, p = 0.003). We did not find evidence suggesting unintended consequences of the nicotine fact sheet on smokers' e-cigarettes risk perceptions or use intentions (e.g., increased dual use intentions or reduced absolute e-cigarette risk perception).Tags: (e-cigarettes; nicotine communication; nicotine education; nicotine misperception)
2012Effects of active and passive electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on lung functionToxicology letters (p. 6/17/2012)LINK
2015Effects of duration of electronic cigarette useNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/2/2015)LINKINTRODUCTION: This study examined the effect of duration electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use on e-cigarette dependence, frequency of use, and strength of nicotine solution as well as number of cigarettes smoked per day. METHODS: Individuals were recruited at e-cigarette retail locations in a large Midwestern metropolitan city of the United States in July 2013. A total of 159 participants completed a brief 29-item self-report measure that assessed behaviors and perceptions of use. The mean age of the participants was 35.8 years; 84.4% were White, and 53.7% were male. RESULTS: Increased duration of e-cigarette use was associated with fewer cigarettes smoked per day and differing patterns of dependence to e-cigarettes contingent upon smoking history. Additionally, increased duration of e-cigarette use was associated with increased frequency of use; however, this finding became nonsignificant when current tobacco cigarette use was accounted for, suggesting that individuals may increase e-cigarette use frequency as they decrease cigarette use. Overall, e-cigarette users tended to decrease the strength of nicotine in their e-cigarette products regardless of duration of use. CONCLUSIONS: Although preliminary in nature, this study identifies several factors that are important to consider when examining the effects of prolonged e-cigarette use. The implications of the current results should be informative to future studies that examine these variables in longitudinal designs.
2019Effects of e-Cigarette Advertisements on Adolescents' Perceptions of CigarettesHealth communication (p. 1/3/2019)LINKThis study examined the effect of exposure to cigalike" (products resembling cigarettes) e-cigarette advertisements on adolescents' perceptions of cigarettes. A nationally representative sample of 802 adolescents (13-17 years old) was randomly assigned to watch three e-cigarette or three control advertisements. Never-smokers who saw the e-cigarette advertisements (n = 352) reported significantly lower perceived risks of smoking than those in the control condition (n = 320). Ever-smokers (n = 130) did not show significant differences across the conditions. In subgroup analyses" current smokers (reported smoking in the past 30 days
2019Effects of E-cigarette Advertising Message Form and Cues on Cessation Intention: An Exploratory StudyJournal of health communication (p. 7/12/2019)LINKA common message in e-cigarette advertising is that e-cigarettes can be used anywhere. E-cigarette advertisements often express this message implicitly (e.g., Whenever
2020Effects of Electronic Cigarette Constituents on the Human Lung: A Pilot Clinical TrialCancer prevention research (p. 1/2/2020)LINKElectronic cigarette (e-cig) use is continuing to increase, particularly among youth never-smokers, and is used by some smokers to quit. The acute and chronic toxicity of e-cig use is unclear generally in the context of increasing reports of inflammatory-type pneumonia in some e-cig users. To assess lung effects of e-cigs without nicotine or flavors, we conducted a pilot study with serial bronchoscopies over 4 weeks in 30 never-smokers, randomized either to a 4-week intervention with the use of e-cigs containing only 50% propylene glycol (PG) and 50% vegetable glycerine or to a no-use control group. Compliance to the e-cig intervention was assessed by participants sending daily puff counts and by urinary PG. Inflammatory cell counts and cytokines were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. Genome-wide expression, miRNA, and mRNA were determined from bronchial epithelial cells. There were no significant differences in changes of BAL inflammatory cell counts or cytokines between baseline and follow-up, comparing the control and e-cig groups. However, in the intervention but not the control group, change in urinary PG as a marker of e-cig use and inhalation was significantly correlated with change in cell counts (cell concentrations, macrophages, and lymphocytes) and cytokines (IL8, IL13, and TNFα), although the absolute magnitude of changes was small. There were no significant changes in mRNA or miRNA gene expression. Although limited by study size and duration, this is the first experimental demonstration of an impact of e-cig use on inflammation in the human lung among never-smokers.
2018Effects of electronic cigarette liquid solvents propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin on user nicotine delivery, heart rate, subjective effects, and puff topographyDrug and alcohol dependence (p. 7/1/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are a class of tobacco products that produce different effects (e.g., nicotine delivery), depending on the device, liquid, and behavioral factors. However, the influence of the two primary ECIG liquid solvents, propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG), on ECIG acute effects is unknown. METHODS: Thirty ECIG-experienced, ≥12-h nicotine- abstinent participants completed four conditions consisting of two ECIG-use bouts (10 puffs, 30 s interpuff-interval) differing only by liquid PG:VG ratio (2PG:98VG, 20PG:80VG, 55PG:45VG, 100PG). Device power (7.3 W) and liquid nicotine concentration (18 mg/ml) remained constant. Nicotine delivery, subjective effects, heart rate (HR), and puff topography were assessed. RESULTS: In the 100PG condition, participants took shorter and smaller puffs but obtained significantly more nicotine relative to the two VG-based conditions. Total nicotine exposure (i.e., area under the curve) was also significantly higher during use of the two PG-based liquids. However, participants reported that the 100 PG liquid was significantly less pleasant" and ""satisfying"" relative to the other liquids (all ps < .05). Increases in HR and decreases in abstinence symptoms (e.g." "craving"") did not differ across conditions. CONCLUSIONS: PG:VG ratio influenced nicotine delivery"
2019Effects of non-tobacco flavors and nicotine on e-cigarette product appeal among young adult never, former, and current smokersDrug and alcohol dependence (p. 10/1/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: E-cigarette regulations targeting products that disproportionately appeal to never-smokers may optimize population health. This laboratory study of young adults tested whether differences in appeal between e-cigarettes with non-tobacco-flavored (vs. tobacco-flavored) and nicotine-containing (vs. nicotine-free) solutions varied by smoking history. METHODS: Current (N = 53), former (N = 25), and never (N = 22) cigarette smokers who vape (Mean[SD] age = 25.4[4.4] years) administered standardized e-cigarette doses varied by a Flavor (fruit, menthol, tobacco) × Nicotine (nicotine-containing [6 mg/mL], nicotine-free) within-subject double-blind design. Participants rated each dose's appeal (0-100 scale). Covariate-adjusted interactions tested whether smoking history moderated flavor and nicotine effects. RESULTS: Appeal was higher for fruit and menthol than tobacco flavors in each group. The fruit vs. tobacco appeal difference was greater in never smokers (fruit-tobacco estimate = 19.6) than current smokers (estimate = 12.1) but not former smokers (estimate = 12.6). The menthol vs. tobacco difference was greater in never smokers (menthol-tobacco estimate = 17.3) than former (estimate = 6.0) and current (estimate = 7.2) smokers. Appeal was lower for nicotine-containing than nicotine-free solutions in each group; this difference was greater in never smokers (nicotine-nicotine-free estimate = -17.3) than former (estimate = -7.0) and current (estimate = -10.6) smokers. Compared to tobacco flavors, nicotine's appeal-reducing effects were suppressed by fruit and menthol flavors in never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Higher appeal of non-tobacco-flavored (vs. tobacco-flavored) and lower appeal of nicotine-containing (vs. nicotine-free) e-cigarettes may be widespread in young adults but disproportionately amplified in never smokers. Non-tobacco flavors may suppress nicotine's appeal-lowering qualities in never smokers. The impact of regulating non-tobacco flavors in e-cigarettes may vary by smoking history.Tags: (Flavors; Product appeal; Tobacco regulatory science; Young adults; e-Cigarettes)
2010Effects of theatrical smokes and fogs on respiratory health in the entertainment industryAmerican journal of industrial medicine (p. 1/5/2005)LINKBACKGROUND: Theatrical fogs (glycol or mineral oil aerosols) are widely used in the entertainment industry to create special effects and make lighting visible. METHODS: We studied 101 employees at 19 sites using fogs and measured personal fog exposures, across work shift lung function, and acute and chronic symptoms. Results were also compared to an external control population, studied previously. RESULTS: Chronic work-related wheezing and chest tightness were significantly associated with increased cumulative exposure to fogs (mineral oil and glycols) over the previous 2 years. Acute cough and dry throat were associated with acute exposure to glycol-based fogs; increased acute upper airway symptoms were associated with increased fog aerosol overall. Lung function was significantly lower among those working closest to the fog source. CONCLUSIONS: Mineral oil- and glycol-based fogs are associated with acute and chronic adverse effects on respiratory health among employees. Reducing exposure, through controls, substitution, and elimination where possible, is likely to reduce these effects.
2015Effects of user puff topography, device voltage, and liquid nicotine concentration on electronic cigarette nicotine yield: measurements and model predictionsNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/2/2015)LINKINTRODUCTION: Some electronic cigarette (ECIG) users attain tobacco cigarette-like plasma nicotine concentrations while others do not. Understanding the factors that influence ECIG aerosol nicotine delivery is relevant to regulation, including product labeling and abuse liability. These factors may include user puff topography, ECIG liquid composition, and ECIG design features. This study addresses how these factors can influence ECIG nicotine yield. METHODS: Aerosols were machine generated with 1 type of ECIG cartridge (V4L CoolCart) using 5 distinct puff profiles representing a tobacco cigarette smoker (2-s puff duration, 33-ml/s puff velocity), a slow average ECIG user (4 s, 17 ml/s), a fast average user (4 s, 33 ml/s), a slow extreme user (8 s, 17 ml/s), and a fast extreme user (8 s, 33 ml/s). Output voltage (3.3-5.2 V or 3.0-7.5 W) and e-liquid nicotine concentration (18-36 mg/ml labeled concentration) were varied. A theoretical model was also developed to simulate the ECIG aerosol production process and to provide insight into the empirical observations. RESULTS: Nicotine yields from 15 puffs varied by more than 50-fold across conditions. Experienced ECIG user profiles (longer puffs) resulted in higher nicotine yields relative to the tobacco smoker (shorter puffs). Puff velocity had no effect on nicotine yield. Higher nicotine concentration and higher voltages resulted in higher nicotine yields. These results were predicted well by the theoretical model (R (2) = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Depending on puff conditions and product features, 15 puffs from an ECIG can provide far less or far more nicotine than a single tobacco cigarette. ECIG emissions can be predicted using physical principles, with knowledge of puff topography and a few ECIG device design parameters.
2014Efficacy of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessationThe Annals of pharmacotherapy (p. 1/11/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: To review data demonstrating effective smoking cessation with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). DATA SOURCES: A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1946-March 2014) was performed using the search terms e-cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, and smoking cessation. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All English-language clinical studies assessing efficacy of e-cigarettes compared with baseline, placebo, or other pharmacological methods to aid in withdrawal symptoms, smoking reduction, or cessation were evaluated. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 6 clinical studies were included in the review. In small studies, e-cigarettes significantly decreased desire to smoke, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and adverse effects were variable. The most common adverse effects were nausea, headache, cough, and mouth/throat irritation. Compared with nicotine patches, e-cigarettes were associated with fewer adverse effects and higher adherence. Most studies showed a significant decrease in cigarette use acutely; however, long-term cessation was not sustained at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation; however, there may be a place in therapy to help modify smoking habits or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked. Studies available provided different administration patterns such as use while smoking, instead of smoking, or as needed. Short-term studies reviewed were small and did not necessarily evaluate cessation with a focus on parameters associated with cessation withdrawal symptoms. Though long-term safety is unknown, concerns regarding increased poisoning exposures among adults in comparison with cigarettes are alarming.Tags: (FDA issues; ambulatory care; community practice; drug information; evidence-based practice; smoking cessation)
2013EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as tobacco cigarettes substitute: a prospective 12-month randomized control design studyPloS one (p. 6/24/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users report buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a 'smoking' experience, but with reduced health risks. Research on e-cigarettes is urgently needed in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are based on science. Methods ECLAT is a prospective 12-month randomized, controlled trial that evaluates smoking reduction/abstinence in 300 smokers not intending to quit experimenting two different nicotine strengths of a popular e-cigarette model ('Categoria'; Arbi Group Srl, Italy) compared to its non-nicotine choice. GroupA (n = 100) received 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks; GroupB (n = 100), a 6-week 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges followed by a further 6-week 5.4 mg nicotine cartridges; GroupC (n = 100) received no-nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks. The study consisted of nine visits during which cig/day use and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels were measured. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events and product preferences were also reviewed. RESULTS: Declines in cig/day use and eCO levels were observed at each study visits in all three study groups (p<0.001 vs baseline), with no consistent differences among study groups. Smoking reduction was documented in 22.3% and 10.3% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. Complete abstinence from tobacco smoking was documented in 10.7% and 8.7% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. A substantial decrease in adverse events from baseline was observed and withdrawal symptoms were infrequently reported during the study. Participants' perception and acceptance of the product under investigation was satisfactory. CONCLUSION: In smokers not intending to quit, the use of e-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, decreased cigarette consumption and elicited enduring tobacco abstinence without causing significant side effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01164072 NCT01164072.
2012Electronic cigarette aerosol particle size distribution measurementsInhalation toxicology (p. 1/12/2012)LINKThe particle size distribution of aerosols produced by electronic cigarettes was measured in an undiluted state by a spectral transmission procedure and after high dilution with an electrical mobility analyzer. The undiluted e-cigarette aerosols were found to have particle diameters of average mass in the 250-450 nm range and particle number concentrations in the 10(9) particles/cm(3) range. These measurements are comparable to those observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke in prior studies and also measured in the current study with the spectral transmission method and with the electrical mobility procedure. Total particulate mass for the e-cigarettes calculated from the size distribution parameters measured by spectral transmission were in good agreement with replicate determinations of total particulate mass by gravimetric filter collection. In contrast, average particle diameters determined for e-cigarettes by the electrical mobility method are in the 50 nm range and total particulate masses calculated based on the suggested diameters are orders of magnitude smaller than those determined gravimetrically. This latter discrepancy, and the very small particle diameters observed, are believed to result from almost complete e-cigarette aerosol particle evaporation at the dilution levels and conditions of the electrical mobility analysis. A much smaller degree, ~20% by mass, of apparent particle evaporation was observed for tobacco burning cigarette smoke. The spectral transmission method is validated in the current study against measurements on tobacco burning cigarette smoke, which has been well characterized in prior studies, and is supported as yielding an accurate characterization of the e-cigarette aerosol particle size distribution.
2017Electronic Cigarette Device-Related Hazards:: A Call for Immediate FDA RegulationAmerican journal of preventive medicine (p. 1/2/2017)LINK
2017Electronic cigarette hazardsJournal of the American Dental Association (p. 1/2/2017)LINK
2016Electronic cigarette inhalation alters innate immunity and airway cytokines while increasing the virulence of colonizing bacteriaJournal of molecular medicine (p. 1/6/2016)LINKUNLABELLED: Electronic (e)-cigarette use is rapidly rising, with 20 % of Americans ages 25-44 now using these drug delivery devices. E-cigarette users expose their airways, cells of host defense, and colonizing bacteria to e-cigarette vapor (EV). Here, we report that exposure of human epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface to fresh EV (vaped from an e-cigarette device) resulted in dose-dependent cell death. After exposure to EV, cells of host defense-epithelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophils-had reduced antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Mouse inhalation of EV for 1 h daily for 4 weeks led to alterations in inflammatory markers within the airways and elevation of an acute phase reactant in serum. Upon exposure to e-cigarette vapor extract (EVE), airway colonizer SA had increased biofilm formation, adherence and invasion of epithelial cells, resistance to human antimicrobial peptide LL-37, and up-regulation of virulence genes. EVE-exposed SA were more virulent in a mouse model of pneumonia. These data suggest that e-cigarettes may be toxic to airway cells, suppress host defenses, and promote inflammation over time, while also promoting virulence of colonizing bacteria. KEY MESSAGE: Acute exposure to e-cigarette vapor (EV) is cytotoxic to airway cells in vitro. Acute exposure to EV decreases macrophage and neutrophil antimicrobial function. Inhalation of EV alters immunomodulating cytokines in the airways of mice. Inhalation of EV leads to increased markers of inflammation in BAL and serum. Staphylococcus aureus become more virulent when exposed to EV.Tags: (Antimicrobial peptide LL-37; Cytotoxicity; E-cigarette vapor; Inflammatory lung disease; MRSA pneumonia; Staphylococcal virulence)
2018Electronic Cigarette Smoking Increases Arterial Stiffness and Oxidative Stress to a Lesser Extent Than a Single Conventional Cigarette: An Acute and Chronic StudyCirculation (p. 1/16/2018)LINKTags: (cigarette smoking; electronic nicotine delivery systems; oxidative stress; smoking cessation; vaping; vascular stiffness)
2014Electronic cigarette use among Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study of market penetration, dual use, and relationship to quit attempts and former smokingThe Journal of adolescent health (p. 1/6/2014)LINKPURPOSE: As elsewhere, in South Korea electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are marketed, in part, as a smoking cessation aid. We assessed the prevalence of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents and the relationship between e-cigarette use and current (past 30-day) smoking, cigarettes/day, attempts to quit conventional cigarettes, and ceasing to use cigarettes. METHODS: Data from the 2011 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 75,643 students aged 13-18 years were analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 9.4% (8.0% ever-dual users who were concurrently using e-cigarettes and smoking conventional cigarettes and 1.4% ever-e-cigarette only users) of Korean adolescents have ever used e-cigarettes and 4.7% were current (past 30-day) e-cigarette users (3.6% dual users and 1.1% e-cigarettes only). After adjusting for demographics, current cigarette smokers were much more likely to use e-cigarettes than were nonsmokers. Among current cigarette smokers, those who smoked more frequently were more likely to be current e-cigarette users. The odds of being an e-cigarette user were 1.58 times (95% confidence interval, 1.39-1.79) higher among students who had made an attempt to quit than for those who had not. It was rare for students no longer using cigarettes to be among current e-cigarette users (odds ratio, .10; confidence interval, .09-.12). CONCLUSIONS: Some Korean adolescents may be responding to advertising claims that e-cigarettes are a cessation aid: those who had made an attempt to quit were more likely to use e-cigarettes but less likely to no longer use cigarettes. E-cigarette use was strongly associated with current and heavier cigarette smoking.Tags: (Adolescents; Dual use; Electronic cigarettes; Electronic nicotine delivery systems; Smoking; Smoking cessation; Tobacco)
2015Electronic cigarette use and exposure in the pediatric populationJAMA pediatrics (p. 1/2/2015)LINKElectronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has gained recent widespread popularity and acceptance in the general population. What effect e-cigarettes may have on pediatric health remains unknown. Although many jurisdictions have laws that prevent the sale of e-cigarettes to minors and the use of e-cigarettes in public places, infants, children, and adolescents are increasingly exposed to them. In this pediatric-focused review, we discuss the history of these devices, user demographics, known health effects, and current legislative efforts to protect minors from exposure.
2015Electronic cigarette use and harm reversal: emerging evidence in the lungBMC medicine (p. 3/18/2015)LINKElectronic cigarettes (ECs) have been rapidly gaining ground on conventional cigarettes due to their efficiency in ceasing or reducing tobacco consumption, competitive prices, and the perception of them being a much less harmful smoking alternative. Direct confirmation that long-term EC use leads to reductions in smoking-related diseases is not available and it will take a few decades before the tobacco harm reduction potential of this products is firmly established. Nonetheless, it is feasible to detect early changes in airway function and respiratory symptoms in smokers switching to e-vapor. Acute investigations do not appear to support negative respiratory health outcomes in EC users and initial findings from long-term studies are supportive of a beneficial effect of EC use in relation to respiratory outcomes. The emerging evidence that EC use can reverse harm from tobacco smoking should be taken into consideration by regulatory authorities seeking to adopt proportional measures for the e-vapor category.
2016Electronic cigarette use in the European Union: analysis of a representative sample of 27 460 Europeans from 28 countriesAddiction (p. 1/11/2016)LINKAIMS: To assess prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, reported changes in smoking status due to e-cigarette use and correlates of e-cigarette use in the European Union (EU) member states in 2014. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of EU citizens representative of the population (Special Eurobarometer 429). SETTING: All 28 Member States of the EU. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 27 460 EU citizens aged ≥ 15 years (after excluding those who responded 'Do not know' to the questions about smoking status and e-cigarette use). MEASUREMENTS: Descriptive analysis [%, 95% confidence interval (CI)] of e-cigarette use prevalence (current use, past use and past experimentation) according to smoking status, self-reported changes in smoking status according to patterns of e-cigarette use and logistic regression analysis to examine correlates of e-cigarette use, especially socio-demographic factors and smoking status. FINDINGS: Ever e-cigarette use was reported by 31.1% (95% CI = 30.0-32.2%) of current smokers, 10.8% (95% CI = 10.0-11.7%) of former smokers and 2.3% (95% CI = 2.1-2.6%) of never smokers. Past experimentation [7.2% (95% CI = 6.9-7.5%)] was more common than current [1.8% (95% CI = 1.6-1.9%)] and past use [2.6% (95% CI = 2.4-2.8%)]. Extrapolated to the whole population, approximately 48.5 million EU citizens were ever e-cigarette users, with 76.8% using nicotine-containing e-cigarettes. An estimated 6.1 and 9.2 million EU citizens had quit and reduced smoking with the help of e-cigarettes, respectively. Initiation with e-cigarettes was reported by 0.8% (95% CI = 0.6-0.9%) of participants who reported ever use of any tobacco-related product. Only 1.3% (95% CI = 1.1-1.5%) of never smokers used nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, with 0.09% (95% CI = 0.04-0.14%) reporting daily nicotine use. Smoking cessation with the help of e-cigarettes was reported by 35.1% (95% CI = 30.7-39.5%) of current e-cigarette users, while a further 32.2% (95% CI = 29.9-36.5%) reported smoking reduction. Being current [odds ratio (OR) = 21.23, 95% CI = 18.32-24.59) or former smokers (OR = 6.49, 95% CI = 5.49-7.67) were the strongest correlates of ever e-cigarette use. CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette use in the European Union appears to be largely confined to current or former smokers, while current use and nicotine use by people who have never smoked is rare. More than one-third of current e-cigarette users polled reported smoking cessation and reduction.Tags: (Electronic cigarettes; European Union; nicotine; smoking; smoking cessation; tobacco)
2017Electronic cigarette vapor alters the lateral structure but not tensiometric properties of calf lung surfactantRespiratory research (p. 11/17/2017)LINKBACKGROUND: Despite their growing popularity, the potential respiratory toxicity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) remains largely unknown. One potential aspect of e-cigarette toxicity is the effect of e-cigarette vapor on lung surfactant function. Lung surfactant is a mixture of lipids and proteins that lines the alveolar region. The surfactant layer reduces the surface tension of the alveolar fluid, thereby playing a crucial role in lung stability. Due to their small size, particulates in e-cigarette vapor can penetrate the deep lungs and come into contact with the lung surfactant. The current study sought to examine the potential adverse effects of e-cigarette vapor and conventional cigarette smoke on lung surfactant interfacial properties. METHODS: Infasurf®, a clinically used and commercially available calf lung surfactant extract, was used as lung surfactant model. Infasurf® films were spread on top of an aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough with smoke particulates from conventional cigarettes or vapor from different flavors of e-cigarettes dispersed in the subphase. Surfactant interfacial properties were measured in real-time upon surface compression while surfactant lateral structure after exposure to smoke or vapor was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). RESULTS: E-cigarette vapor regardless of the dose and flavoring of the e-liquid did not affect surfactant interfacial properties. In contrast, smoke from conventional cigarettes had a drastic, dose-dependent effect on Infasurf® interfacial properties reducing the maximum surface pressure from 65.1 ± 0.2 mN/m to 46.1 ± 1.3 mN/m at the highest dose. Cigarette smoke and e-cigarette vapor both altered surfactant microstructure resulting in an increase in the area of lipid multilayers. Studies with individual smoke components revealed that tar was the smoke component most disruptive to surfactant function. CONCLUSIONS: While both e-cigarette vapor and conventional cigarette smoke affect surfactant lateral structure, only cigarette smoke disrupts surfactant interfacial properties. The surfactant inhibitory compound in conventional cigarettes is tar, which is a product of burning and is thus absent in e-cigarette vapor.Tags: (Electronic cigarette; Infasurf®; Lung surfactant; Surface tension; Surfactant inhibition)
2018Electronic Cigarette: A Longitudinal Study of Regular VapersNicotine & tobacco research (p. 7/9/2018)LINKIntroduction: It is unclear how vaping behavior changes over time in regular vapers, and what occurs when vapers relapse to smoking or when they stop vaping. We assessed change in vaping and smoking behaviors over 12 months in regular vapers. Methods: A longitudinal study of 3868 regular vapers enrolled on the Internet in 2012-2015 (baseline")" followed after one (n = 1631
2013Electronic cigarette: a possible substitute for cigarette dependenceMonaldi archives for chest disease = Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace Fondazione clinica del lavoro, IRCCS [and] Istituto di clinica tisiologica e malattie apparato respiratorio, Universita di Napoli, Secondo ateneo (p. 1/3/2013)LINKCigarette smoking is the leading cause of premature mortality in western countries and it is important for smokers to stop as early as possible. Electronic cigarettes are a popular phenomenon of global proportion. Recent uncontrolled studies, reported that a certain number of smokers have quit using electronic cigarettes. This could hint a role for electronic cigarettes to be used for smoking cessation, and therefore merits further evaluation for this purpose. Besides vaporising nicotine to be inhaled, electronic cigarettes may also provide a coping mechanism for conditioned smoking cues by replacing some of the rituals associated with smoking gestures, and for these reasons cigarette could become a tool--if studied more extensively--in the fight against tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.
2011Electronic cigarette: users profile, utilization, satisfaction and perceived efficacyAddiction (p. 1/11/2011)LINKAIMS: To assess the profile, utilization patterns, satisfaction and perceived effects among users of electronic cigarettes ('e-cigarettes'). DESIGN AND SETTING: Internet survey in English and French in 2010. MEASUREMENTS: Online questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Visitors of websites and online discussion forums dedicated to e-cigarettes and to smoking cessation. FINDINGS: There were 3587 participants (70% former tobacco smokers, 61% men, mean age 41 years). The median duration of electronic cigarette use was 3 months, users drew 120 puffs/day and used five refills/day. Almost all (97%) used e-cigarettes containing nicotine. Daily users spent $33 per month on these products. Most (96%) said the e-cigarette helped them to quit smoking or reduce their smoking (92%). Reasons for using the e-cigarette included the perception that it was less toxic than tobacco (84%), to deal with craving for tobacco (79%) and withdrawal symptoms (67%), to quit smoking or avoid relapsing (77%), because it was cheaper than smoking (57%) and to deal with situations where smoking was prohibited (39%). Most ex-smokers (79%) feared they might relapse to smoking if they stopped using the e-cigarette. Users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes reported better relief of withdrawal and a greater effect on smoking cessation than those using non-nicotine e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarettes were used much as people would use nicotine replacement medications: by former smokers to avoid relapse or as an aid to cut down or quit smoking. Further research should evaluate the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes for administration of nicotine and other substances, and for quitting and relapse prevention.
2011Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs): views of aficionados and clinical public health perspectivesInternational journal of clinical practice (p. 1/10/2011)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) have experienced a rapid growth in popularity but little is known about how they are used. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify the e-cig products used by experienced e-cig users, their pattern of e-cig use and the impact on tobacco use. METHOD: Face-to-face survey of 104 experienced e-cig users. RESULTS: Of all the e-cig users, 78% had not used any tobacco in the prior 30 days. They had previously smoked an average of 25 cigarettes per day, and had tried to quit smoking an average of nine times before they started using e-cigs. Two-thirds had previously tried to quit smoking using an FDA-approved smoking cessation medication. The majority of the sample had used e-cigs daily for at least a year. Three quarters started using e-cigs with the intention of quitting smoking and almost all felt that the e-cig had helped them to succeed in quitting smoking. Two-thirds used e-cig liquid with a medium to high concentration of nicotine (13 mg +). Only 8% were using the most widely sold types of cigarette-sized e-cigs that are typically powered by a single 3.7 volt battery. Instead most used e-cigs designed to enable the atomizer to more consistently achieve a hotter more intense vapour. CONCLUSION: Until we have more evidence on the safety and efficacy of e-cigs for smoking cessation, smokers should be advised to use proven treatments (e.g. counselling and FDA-approved medicines). However, for those who have successfully switched to e-cigs, the priority should be staying off cigarettes, rather than quitting e-cigs.
2014Electronic cigarettes and conventional cigarette use among U.S. adolescents: a cross-sectional studyJAMA pediatrics (p. 1/7/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: To examine e-cigarette use and conventional cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional analyses of survey data from a representative sample of US middle and high school students in 2011 (n = 17 353) and 2012 (n = 22 529) who completed the 2011 and 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey. EXPOSURES: Ever and current e-cigarette use. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Experimentation with, ever, and current smoking, and smoking abstinence. RESULTS: Among cigarette experimenters (1 puff), ever e-cigarette use was associated with higher odds of ever smoking cigarettes (100 cigarettes; odds ratio [OR] = 6.31; 95% CI, 5.39-7.39) and current cigarette smoking (OR = 5.96; 95% CI, 5.67-6.27). Current e-cigarette use was positively associated with ever smoking cigarettes (OR = 7.42; 95% CI, 5.63-9.79) and current cigarette smoking (OR = 7.88; 95% CI, 6.01-10.32). In 2011, current cigarette smokers who had ever used e-cigarettes were more likely to intend to quit smoking within the next year (OR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.03-2.28). Among experimenters with conventional cigarettes, ever use of e-cigarettes was associated with lower 30-day (OR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.21-0.28), 6-month (OR = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.21-0.28), and 1-year (OR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.21-0.30) abstinence from cigarettes. Current e-cigarette use was also associated with lower 30-day (OR = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.08-0.15), 6-month (OR = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.08-0.15), and 1-year (OR = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.07-0.18) abstinence. Among ever smokers of cigarettes (100 cigarettes), ever e-cigarette use was negatively associated with 30-day (OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.89), 6-month (OR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33-0.83), and 1-year (OR = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.18-0.56) abstinence from conventional cigarettes. Current e-cigarette use was also negatively associated with 30-day (OR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18-0.69), 6-month (OR = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.13-0.68), and 1-year (OR = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.87) abstinence. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Use of e-cigarettes was associated with higher odds of ever or current cigarette smoking, higher odds of established smoking, higher odds of planning to quit smoking among current smokers, and, among experimenters, lower odds of abstinence from conventional cigarettes. Use of e-cigarettes does not discourage, and may encourage, conventional cigarette use among U.S. adolescents.
2014Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacologyTobacco control (p. 1/5/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. RESULTS: Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.Tags: (electronic cigarettes; nicotine dependence; nicotine pharmacology)
2013Electronic cigarettes and vaping: a new challenge in clinical medicine and public health. A literature reviewFrontiers in public health (p. 11/18/2013)LINKElectronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, or vaping, in the United States and worldwide is increasing. Their use is highly controversial from scientific, political, financial, psychological, and sociological ideologies. Given the controversial nature of e-cigarettes and vaping, how should medical care providers advise their patients? To effectively face this new challenge, health care professionals need to become more familiar with the existing literature concerning e-cigarettes and vaping, especially the scientific literature. Thus, the aim of this article is to present a review of the scientific evidence-based primary literature concerning electronic cigarettes and vaping. A search of the most current literature using the pubmed database dating back to 2008, and using electronic cigarette(s) or e-cigarette(s) as key words, yielded a total of 66 highly relevant articles. These articles primarily deal with (1) consumer-based surveys regarding personal views on vaping, (2) chemical analysis of e-cigarette cartridges, solutions, and mist, (3) nicotine content, delivery, and pharmacokinetics, and (4) clinical and physiological studies investigating the effects of acute vaping. When compared to the effects of smoking, the scant available literature suggests that vaping could be a harm reduction" alternative to smoking and a possible means for smoking cessation" at least to the same degree as other Food and Drug Administration-approved nicotine replacement therapies. However
2011Electronic cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy for tobacco control: a step forward or a repeat of past mistakes?Journal of public health policy (p. 1/2/2011)LINKThe issue of harm reduction has long been controversial in the public health practice of tobacco control. Health advocates have been reluctant to endorse a harm reduction approach out of fear that tobacco companies cannot be trusted to produce and market products that will reduce the risks associated with tobacco use. Recently, companies independent of the tobacco industry introduced electronic cigarettes, devices that deliver vaporized nicotine without combusting tobacco. We review the existing evidence on the safety and efficacy of electronic cigarettes. We then revisit the tobacco harm reduction debate, with a focus on these novel products. We conclude that electronic cigarettes show tremendous promise in the fight against tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. By dramatically expanding the potential for harm reduction strategies to achieve substantial health gains, they may fundamentally alter the tobacco harm reduction debate.
2015Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort StudyPloS one (p. 6/10/2015)LINKOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up. DATA SOURCES: Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet. METHODS: Adults (30-75 years) were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers), users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers), or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers). Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily. DATA SYNTHESIS: We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit. RESULTS: Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%). All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35-8.02), whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall). CONCLUSIONS: Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate smoking cessation or reduction. If e-cigarette safety will be confirmed, however, the use of e-cigarettes alone may facilitate quitters remaining so. REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01785537.
2014Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reductionCochrane database of systematic reviews (p. 12/17/2014)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are electronic devices that heat a liquid - usually comprising propylene glycol and glycerol, with or without nicotine and flavours, stored in disposable or refillable cartridges or a reservoir - into an aerosol for inhalation. Since ECs appeared on the market in 2006 there has been a steady growth in sales. Smokers report using ECs to reduce risks of smoking, but some healthcare organisations have been reluctant to encourage smokers to switch to ECs, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. Smokers, healthcare providers and regulators are interested to know if these devices can reduce the harms associated with smoking. In particular, healthcare providers have an urgent need to know what advice they should give to smokers enquiring about ECs. OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of ECs in helping people who smoke to achieve long-term abstinence; to examine the efficacy of ECs in helping people reduce cigarette consumption by at least 50% of baseline levels; and to assess the occurrence of adverse events associated with EC use. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Groups Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and two other databases for relevant records from 2004 to July 2014, together with reference checking and contact with study authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which current smokers (motivated or unmotivated to quit) were randomized to EC or a control condition, and which measured abstinence rates or changes in cigarette consumption at six months or longer. As the field of EC research is new, we also included cohort follow-up studies with at least six months follow-up. We included randomized cross-over trials and cohort follow-up studies that included at least one week of EC use for assessment of adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author extracted data from the included studies and another checked them. Our main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up, and we used the most rigorous definition available (continuous, biochemically validated, longest follow-up). For reduction we used a dichotomous approach (no change/reduction < 50% versus reduction by 50% or more of baseline cigarette consumption). We used a fixed-effect Mantel-Haenszel model to calculate the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study, and where appropriate we pooled data from these studies in meta-analyses. MAIN RESULTS: Our search identified almost 600 records, from which we include 29 representing 13 completed studies (two RCTs, 11 cohort). We identified nine ongoing trials. Two RCTs compared EC with placebo (non-nicotine) EC, with a combined sample size of 662 participants. One trial included minimal telephone support and one recruited smokers not intending to quit, and both used early EC models with low nicotine content. We judged the RCTs to be at low risk of bias, but under the GRADE system the overall quality of the evidence for our outcomes was rated 'low' or 'very low' because of imprecision due to the small number of trials. A 'low' grade means that further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate. A 'very low' grade means we are very uncertain about the estimate. Participants using an EC were more likely to have abstained from smoking for at least six months compared with participants using placebo EC (RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.05 to 4.96; placebo 4% versus EC 9%; 2 studies; GRADE: low). The one study that compared EC to nicotine patch found no significant difference in six-month abstinence rates, but the confidence intervals do not rule out a clinically important difference (RR 1.26, 95% CI: 0.68 to 2.34; GRADE: very low). A higher number of people were able to reduce cigarette consumption by at least half with ECs compared with placebo ECs (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.68, 2 studies; placebo: 27% versus EC: 36%; GRADE: low) and compared with patch (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.67, 1 study; patch: 44% versus EC: 61%; GRADE: very low). Unlike smoking cessation outcomes, reduction results were not biochemically verified.None of the RCTs or cohort studies reported any serious adverse events (SAEs) that were considered to be plausibly related to EC use. One RCT provided data on the proportion of participants experiencing any adverse events. Although the proportion of participants in the study arms experiencing adverse events was similar, the confidence intervals are wide (ECs vs placebo EC RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.34; ECs vs patch RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.22). The other RCT reported no statistically significant difference in the frequency of AEs at three- or 12-month follow-up between the EC and placebo EC groups, and showed that in all groups the frequency of AEs (with the exception of throat irritation) decreased significantly over time. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence from two trials that ECs help smokers to stop smoking long-term compared with placebo ECs. However, the small number of trials, low event rates and wide confidence intervals around the estimates mean that our confidence in the result is rated 'low' by GRADE standards. The lack of difference between the effect of ECs compared with nicotine patches found in one trial is uncertain for similar reasons. ECs appear to help smokers unable to stop smoking altogether to reduce their cigarette consumption when compared with placebo ECs and nicotine patches, but the above limitations also affect certainty in this finding. In addition, lack of biochemical assessment of the actual reduction in smoke intake further limits this evidence. No evidence emerged that short-term EC use is associated with health risk.
2013Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trialThe Lancet (p. 11/16/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can deliver nicotine and mitigate tobacco withdrawal and are used by many smokers to assist quit attempts. We investigated whether e-cigarettes are more effective than nicotine patches at helping smokers to quit. METHODS: We did this pragmatic randomised-controlled superiority trial in Auckland, New Zealand, between Sept 6, 2011, and July 5, 2013. Adult (≥18 years) smokers wanting to quit were randomised (with computerised block randomisation, block size nine, stratified by ethnicity [Māori; Pacific; or non-Māori, non-Pacific], sex [men or women], and level of nicotine dependence [>5 or ≤5 Fagerström test for nicotine dependence]) in a 4:4:1 ratio to 16 mg nicotine e-cigarettes, nicotine patches (21 mg patch, one daily), or placebo e-cigarettes (no nicotine), from 1 week before until 12 weeks after quit day, with low intensity behavioural support via voluntary telephone counselling. The primary outcome was biochemically verified continuous abstinence at 6 months (exhaled breath carbon monoxide measurement <10 ppm). Primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12610000866000. FINDINGS: 657 people were randomised (289 to nicotine e-cigarettes, 295 to patches, and 73 to placebo e-cigarettes) and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At 6 months, verified abstinence was 7·3% (21 of 289) with nicotine e-cigarettes, 5·8% (17 of 295) with patches, and 4·1% (three of 73) with placebo e-cigarettes (risk difference for nicotine e-cigarette vs patches 1·51 [95% CI -2·49 to 5·51]; for nicotine e-cigarettes vs placebo e-cigarettes 3·16 [95% CI -2·29 to 8·61]). Achievement of abstinence was substantially lower than we anticipated for the power calculation, thus we had insufficient statistical power to conclude superiority of nicotine e-cigarettes to patches or to placebo e-cigarettes. We identified no significant differences in adverse events, with 137 events in the nicotine e-cigarettes group, 119 events in the patches group, and 36 events in the placebo e-cigarettes group. We noted no evidence of an association between adverse events and study product. INTERPRETATION: E-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, were modestly effective at helping smokers to quit, with similar achievement of abstinence as with nicotine patches, and few adverse events. Uncertainty exists about the place of e-cigarettes in tobacco control, and more research is urgently needed to clearly establish their overall benefits and harms at both individual and population levels. FUNDING: Health Research Council of New Zealand.
2015Electronic Cigarettes—A Narrative Review for CliniciansThe American journal of medicine (p. 1/7/2015)LINKElectronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were introduced into the US market in 2007 and have quickly become a popular source of nicotine for many patients. They are designed to simulate smoking by heating a nicotine-containing solution producing an aerosol that the user inhales. The short- and long-term effects of e-cigarette use are still unclear, but their use is increasing. Some acute effects of e-cigarettes on heart rate, blood pressure, and airway resistance are reported. Although there are some reports of improved cessation in a subset of users, there are also studies reporting decreased cessation in dual users of regular and e-cigarettes. Additionally, there is no current regulation of these devices, and this allows virtually anyone with a form of online payment to obtain them.Tags: (Electronic cigarettes; Nicotine; Toxicity; Use patterns)
2013Electronic cigarettes: a new nicotine gateway?The Journal of adolescent health (p. 1/2/2013)LINK
2015Electronic Cigarettes: A Primer for CliniciansOtolaryngology--head and neck surgery (p. 1/7/2015)LINKOBJECTIVE: To introduce the otolaryngology community to the current state of research regarding electronic cigarettes, with special attention paid to mechanism, impact on health and addiction, and use in smoking cessation. DATA SOURCES: Review of Google Scholar and PubMed databases using the keywords electronic cigarettes, e-cigs, e-cigarettes, and vaping. In addition, information from media sources as well as news outlets was evaluated to gauge public perception of research findings. REVIEW METHODS: Recent research and randomized controlled trials were prioritized. CONCLUSIONS: The landscape of electronic cigarette devices is evolving, as is the research regarding their risks and benefits. Utilization is rapidly increasing. It appears that older users employ them as a smoking cessation tool compared to younger users. The data are generally inconclusive regarding the benefits of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation compared with other methods. Furthermore, the safety profile of electronic cigarettes is dynamic and difficult to fully ascertain. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Patients with a variety of otolaryngologic conditions, including cancer, may benefit from frank discussion regarding electronic cigarettes. Furthermore, increasing patient inquiries regarding these devices are likely given their increasing popularity.Tags: (ecigarettes; ecigs; electronic cigarettes; nicotine; vaping)
2012Electronic cigarettes: a response to Leelavathi and Das: LettersInternational journal of clinical practice (p. 4/15/2012)LINKLinked Comment: Leelavathi and Das. Int J Clin Pract 2012; 66: 417.
2014Electronic cigarettes: a review of safety and clinical issuesJournal of addiction medicine (p. 1/7/2014)LINKThis clinical case conference discusses 3 cases of patients using electronic cigarettes. Electronic cigarettes, also referred to as electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes " generally consist of a power source (usually a battery) and a heating element (commonly referred to as an atomizer) that vaporize a solution (e-liquid). The user inhales the resulting vapor. E-liquids contain humectants such as propylene glycol and/or vegetable glycerin"
2013Electronic cigarettes: a short reviewRespiration; international review of thoracic diseases (p. 9/24/2013)LINKMarketed since 2004 as an alternative to nicotine delivery and advertised as a valid means to smoking cessation, the electronic (e)-cigarette has been the subject of much controversy but very little experimental study. This review provides a brief summary of the current knowledge of this product. Propylene glycol and glycerol, the main ingredients of the fluid that is vaporized, have proved to be harmless in the fog machines of the entertainment industry. However, in the case of the e-cigarette fluid, the composition is not properly labeled: additives like nicotine and flavors vary between and within brands and contamination with various chemicals has been detected. The short-term toxicity seems low, but the long-term toxicity is unknown. The usefulness of the e-cigarette in smoking cessation has still to be clinically established.
2014Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effectsTobacco control (p. 1/5/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. RESULTS: A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects' previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of 'real-world' use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects.Tags: (Addiction; Electronic nicotine delivery devices; Smoking topography)
2012Electronic cigarettes: achieving a balanced perspectiveAddiction (p. 1/9/2012)LINKConcerns have been raised that the advent of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may be harmful to public health, and smokers have been advised by important agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration not to use them. This paper argues that, while more research is needed on the cost-benefit equation of these products and the appropriate level and type of regulation for them, the harms have tended thus far to be overstated relative to the potential benefits. In particular: concern over repeated inhalation of propylene glycol is not borne out by toxicity studies with this compound; risk of accidental poisoning is no different from many household devices and chemicals available in supermarkets; concern that e-cigarettes may promote continued smoking by allowing smokers to cope with no-smoking environments is countered by the observation that most smokers use these products to try to quit and their use appears to enhance quitting motivation; concerns over low nicotine delivery are countered by evidence that the products provide significant craving reduction despite this in some cases; and e-cigarettes may help reduce toxin exposure to non-smokers.
2012Electronic cigarettes: an evaluation of exposure to chemicals and fine particulate matter (PM)Annali di igiene (p. 1/7/2012)LINKThe electronic (e-)cigarette" generates intense scientific debate about its use. Its popularity is increasing worldwide as a method to reduce/quit smoking" and to smoke indoors when restrictions on smoking tobacco are present. WHO recommends caution
2015Electronic cigarettes: assessing the efficacy and the adverse effects through a systematic review of published studiesJournal of public health (p. 1/9/2015)LINKBACKGROUND: To investigate the efficacy and the adverse effects (AEs) of the electronic cigarette, we performed a systematic review of published studies. METHODS: We selected experimental and observational studies examining the efficacy (as reduction of desire to smoke and/or number of cigarettes smoked and/or quitting or as reduction of nicotine withdrawal symptoms) and the safety of EC (AEs self-reported or clinical/laboratory). The following search engines were used: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. RESULTS: Finally, six experimental studies and six cohort studies were included. In the prospective 12-month, randomized controlled trial, smoking reduction was documented in 22.3 and 10.3% at Weeks 12 and 52, respectively (P < 0.001 versus baseline). Moreover, two cohort studies reported a reduction in the number of cigarette/day (from 50 to 80%) after the introduction of the EC. 'Mouth and throat irritation', 'nausea', 'headache' and 'dry cough' were the most frequently AEs reported. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the EC can reduce the number of cigarettes smoked and withdrawal symptoms, but the AEs reported are mainly related to a short period of use. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the effects of the EC usage after a chronic exposure.Tags: (e-cigarette; efficacy; electronic device; safety; smoking; tobacco)
2012Electronic cigarettes: do they have a role in smoking cessation?Journal of pharmacy practice (p. 1/12/2012)LINKElectronic cigarettes have gained popularity among patients as a smoking cessation aid despite not being approved or supported for this purpose by the United States Food and Drug Administration due to concerns with poor manufacturing practices and the presence of known carcinogens in the limited products that they tested. A few studies have evaluated the effects of electronic cigarettes on plasma nicotine levels and heart rate but found negligible effects. Safety data are mainly limited to surveys in which patients report only minor side effects, such as mouth and throat irritation, headache, vertigo, and nausea. The efficacy of electronic cigarettes has been evaluated in studies in which patients report great success with being able to cut back or stop tobacco cigarette consumption. However, many of these studies introduce bias due to recruiting on e-cigarette Web sites and having tobacco cigarette use self-reported by the participant rather than objectively tested. A few studies have formally evaluated nicotine craving when using electronic cigarettes with mixed results. Although patients support the use of electronic cigarettes in smoking cessation, more formal studies on safety and efficacy should be completed in order to determine whether these products have a role in smoking cessation.
2013Electronic cigarettes: effective nicotine delivery after acute administrationNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/1/2013)LINKINTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Two studies with EC-naïve participants suggest that ECs deliver little or no nicotine. In those studies, standard-sized ECs were used, though experienced EC users often use larger devices that house higher voltage and/or longer lasting batteries. Whether user experience and device characteristics influence EC nicotine delivery is uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of ECs in experienced users who were using their preferred devices. METHODS: Eight EC users (3 women) who had been using ECs for at least 3 months, completed one 5-hr session using devices they provided and the flavor/strength nicotine cartridges they selected. Sessions consisted of 4 phases: baseline, 10 puffs (30-s interpuff interval) from the device, 1-hr ad lib puffing period, and a 2-hr rest period (no puffing). Outcome measures in each phase included plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective ratings of nicotine/product effects and abstinence symptoms. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, plasma nicotine and heart rate increased significantly within 5 min of the first puff and remained elevated throughout the ad lib puffing period. Increases in ratings of direct effects of nicotine and product were observed as well as decreases in abstinence symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: User experience and/or device characteristics likely influence EC nicotine delivery and other effects. Systematic manipulation of these and other variables could elucidate conditions that produce intended effects.
2014Electronic cigarettes: human health effectsTobacco control (p. 1/5/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. RESULTS: Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.Tags: (adverse event; aerosol; e-cigarettes; second-hand exposure; toxicity)
2014Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessmentsTobacco control (p. 1/5/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. METHODS: Five databases were searched through January 2014 and publications relevant to HF were incorporated. Voluntary adverse event (AE) reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the package labelling of 12 e-cigarette products were analysed. RESULTS: No studies specifically addressing the impact of HF on e-cigarette use risks were identified. Most e-cigarette users are smokers, but data on the user population are inconsistent. No articles focused specifically on e-cigarette use environments, storage conditions, product operational requirements, product complexities, user errors or misuse. Twelve published studies analysed e-cigarette labelling and concluded that labelling was inadequate or misleading. FDA labelling analysis revealed similar concerns described in the literature. AE reports related to design concerns are increasing and fatalities related to accidental exposure and misuse have occurred; however, no publications evaluating the relationship between AEs and HF were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The HF impacting e-cigarette use and related hazards are inadequately characterised. Thorough analyses of user-product-environment interfaces, product complexities and AEs associated with typical and atypical use are needed to better incorporate HF engineering principles to inform and potentially reduce or mitigate the emerging hazards associated with e-cigarette products.
2012Electronic cigarettes: new kit on the rackInternational journal of clinical practice (p. 1/4/2012)LINK
2014Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerationsTobacco control (p. 1/5/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. METHODS: Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. RESULTS: Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's 'effectiveness' as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. CONCLUSIONS: Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons.Tags: (Electronic nicotine delivery devices; Harm Reduction; Non-cigarette tobacco products)
2014Electronic cigarettes: review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers and potential for harm and benefitAddiction (p. 1/11/2014)LINKAIMS: We reviewed available research on the use, content and safety of electronic cigarettes (EC), and on their effects on users, to assess their potential for harm or benefit and to extract evidence that can guide future policy. METHODS: Studies were identified by systematic database searches and screening references to February 2014. RESULTS: EC aerosol can contain some of the toxicants present in tobacco smoke, but at levels which are much lower. Long-term health effects of EC use are unknown but compared with cigarettes, EC are likely to be much less, if at all, harmful to users or bystanders. EC are increasingly popular among smokers, but to date there is no evidence of regular use by never-smokers or by non-smoking children. EC enable some users to reduce or quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Allowing EC to compete with cigarettes in the market-place might decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Regulating EC as strictly as cigarettes, or even more strictly as some regulators propose, is not warranted on current evidence. Health professionals may consider advising smokers unable or unwilling to quit through other routes to switch to EC as a safer alternative to smoking and a possible pathway to complete cessation of nicotine use.Tags: (Electronic cigarettes; harm reduction; prevalence; product safety; regulation; smoking cessation)
2015Electronic cigarettes: the new face of nicotine delivery and addictionJournal of thoracic disease (p. 1/8/2015)LINK
2015Electronic Cigarettes: Vulnerability of YouthPediatric allergy, immunology, and pulmonology (p. 3/1/2015)LINKElectronic cigarettes have become popular and are heavily promoted as a safer cigarette and an aid to quit smoking. Although they may have value in reducing cigarette use among smokers, they are of limited value in smoking cessation and pose many problems, particularly in children. Nicotine is highly addictive and affects virtually all cells in the body. It is particularly harmful to developing brains and other organs. The electronic nicotine delivery systems are largely uncontrolled and safety risks are manifold. Initiating nicotine use and increasing dependence in the population may be linked with increased tobacco and other addictive substance abuse even if the individual electronic cigarette delivers less harm than a combustible cigarette does.
2014Electronic cigarettes. Potential harms and benefitsAnnals of the American Thoracic Society (p. 1/2/2014)LINKUse of electronic cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine-containing vapor, has increased rapidly across the country and globally. Perceived and marketed as a healthier alternative" to conventional cigarettes few data exist regarding the safety of these devices and their efficacy in harm reduction and treatment of tobacco dependence; even less is known about their overall impact on population health. This review highlights the recent data regarding electronic cigarette toxicity
2010Electronic nicotine delivery devices: ineffective nicotine delivery and craving suppression after acute administrationTobacco control (p. 1/2/2010)LINK
2014Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic reviewTobacco control (p. 1/9/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: We sought to systematically review the literature on electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. DATA SOURCES: We searched five databases for articles published between 2006 and 1 July 2013 that contained variations of the phrases 'electronic cigarette', 'e-cigarette' and 'electronic nicotine delivery'. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 244 abstracts identified, we excluded articles not published in English, articles unrelated to ENDS, dissertation abstracts and articles without original data on prespecified outcomes. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers coded each article for ENDS awareness, use, reactions and beliefs. DATA SYNTHESIS: 49 studies met inclusion criteria. ENDS awareness increased from 16% to 58% from 2009 to 2011, and use increased from 1% to 6%. The majority of users were current or former smokers. Many users found ENDS satisfying, and some engaged in dual use of ENDS and other tobacco. No longitudinal studies examined whether ENDS serve as 'gateways' to future tobacco use. Common reasons for using ENDS were quitting smoking and using a product that is healthier than cigarettes. Self-reported survey data and prospective trials suggest that ENDS might help cigarette smokers quit, but no randomised controlled trials with probability samples compared ENDS with other cessation tools. Some individuals used ENDS to avoid smoking restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: ENDS use is expanding rapidly despite experts' concerns about safety, dual use and possible 'gateway' effects. More research is needed on effective public health messages, perceived health risks, validity of self-reports of smoking cessation and the use of different kinds of ENDS.Electronic nicotine delivery devices; Harm Reduction; Non-cigarette tobacco products
2014Electronic nicotine delivery systems (e-cigarettes): review of safety and smoking cessation efficacyOtolaryngology--head and neck surgery (p. 1/9/2014)LINKBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is common among cancer patients and is associated with negative outcomes. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (e-cigarettes") are rapidly growing in popularity and use but there is limited information on their safety or effectiveness in helping individuals quit smoking. DATA SOURCES: The authors searched PubMed
2015Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a policy statement from the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical OncologyClinical cancer research (p. 2/1/2015)LINKCombustible tobacco use remains the number one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include e-cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or formers smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognize the potential ENDS have to alter patterns of tobacco use and affect the public's health; however, definitive data are lacking. AACR and ASCO recommend additional research on these devices, including assessing the health impacts of ENDS, understanding patterns of ENDS use, and determining what role ENDS have in cessation. Key policy recommendations include supporting federal, state, and local regulation of ENDS; requiring manufacturers to register with the FDA and report all product ingredients, requiring childproof caps on ENDS liquids, and including warning labels on products and their advertisements; prohibiting youth-oriented marketing and sales; prohibiting child-friendly ENDS flavors; and prohibiting ENDS use in places where cigarette smoking is prohibited.
2013Electronic nicotine delivery systems: international tobacco control four-country surveyAmerican journal of preventive medicine (p. 1/3/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) initially emerged in 2003 and have since become widely available globally, particularly over the Internet. PURPOSE: Data on ENDS usage patterns are limited. The current paper examines patterns of ENDS awareness, use, and product-associated beliefs among current and former smokers in four countries. METHODS: Data come from Wave 8 of the International Tobacco Control Four-Country Survey, collected July 2010 to June 2011 and analyzed through June 2012. Respondents included 5939 current and former smokers in Canada (n=1581); the U.S. (n=1520); the United Kingdom (UK; n=1325); and Australia (n=1513). RESULTS: Overall, 46.6% were aware of ENDS (U.S.: 73%, UK: 54%, Canada: 40%, Australia: 20%); 7.6% had tried ENDS (16% of those aware of ENDS); and 2.9% were current users (39% of triers). Awareness of ENDS was higher among younger, non-minority smokers with higher incomes who were heavier smokers. Prevalence of trying ENDS was higher among younger, nondaily smokers with a high income and among those who perceived ENDS as less harmful than traditional cigarettes. Current use was higher among both nondaily and heavy (≥20 cigarettes per day) smokers. In all, 79.8% reported using ENDS because they were considered less harmful than traditional cigarettes; 75.4% stated that they used ENDS to help them reduce their smoking; and 85.1% reported using ENDS to help them quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of ENDS is high, especially in countries where they are legal (i.e., the U.S. and UK). Because trial was associated with nondaily smoking and a desire to quit smoking, ENDS may have the potential to serve as a cessation aid.
2014Estimating the harms of nicotine-containing products using the MCDA approachEuropean addiction research (p. 4/3/2014)LINKBACKGROUND: An international expert panel convened by the Independent Scientific Committee on Drugs developed a multi-criteria decision analysis model of the relative importance of different types of harm related to the use of nicotine-containing products. METHOD: The group defined 12 products and 14 harm criteria. Seven criteria represented harms to the user, and the other seven indicated harms to others. The group scored all the products on each criterion for their average harm worldwide using a scale with 100 defined as the most harmful product on a given criterion, and a score of zero defined as no harm. The group also assessed relative weights for all the criteria to indicate their relative importance. FINDINGS: Weighted averages of the scores provided a single, overall score for each product. Cigarettes (overall weighted score of 100) emerged as the most harmful product, with small cigars in second place (overall weighted score of 64). After a substantial gap to the third-place product, pipes (scoring 21), all remaining products scored 15 points or less. INTERPRETATION: Cigarettes are the nicotine product causing by far the most harm to users and others in the world today. Attempts to switch to non-combusted sources of nicotine should be encouraged as the harms from these products are much lower.
2019Evaluating metronidazole as a novel, safe CYP2A6 phenotyping probe in healthy adultsBritish journal of clinical pharmacology (p. 1/5/2019)LINKAIMS: CYP2A6 is a genetically polymorphic enzyme resulting in differential substrate metabolism and health behaviours. Current phenotyping probes for CYP2A6 exhibit limitations related to procurement (deuterated cotinine), toxicity (coumarin), specificity (caffeine) and age-appropriate administration (nicotine, NIC). In vitro, CYP2A6 selectively forms 2-hydroxymetronidazole (2HM) from metronidazole (MTZ). The purpose of this study was to evaluate MTZ as a CYP2A6 phenotyping probe drug in healthy adults against the well-established method of measuring trans-3-hydroxycotinine (3HC)/cotinine (COT). METHODS: A randomized, cross-over, pharmacokinetic study was completed in 16 healthy, nonsmoking adults. Separated by a washout period of at least 2 weeks, MTZ 500 mg and NIC gum 2 mg were administered and plasma was sampled over 48 hours and 8 hours, respectively. Correlations of plasma metabolite/parent ratios (2HM/MTZ; 3HC/COT) were assessed by Pearson coefficient. CYP2A6 genotyping was conducted and incorporated as a variable of plasma ratio response. RESULTS: Correlations between the plasma ratio 2HM/MTZ and 3HC/COT were ≥ 0.9 at multiple time points (P < 0.001), demonstrating a wide window during which 2HM/MTZ can be queried post-MTZ dose. CYP2A6 genotype had significant impacts on both MTZ and NIC phenotyping ratios with decreased activity predicted phenotypes demonstrating 2HM/MTZ ratios ≤58% and 3HC/COT ratios ≤56% compared with extensive activity predicted phenotypes at all time points examined in the study (P < 0.05). No adverse events were reported in the MTZ arm while 38% (n = 6) of participants reported mild adverse events in the NIC arm. CONCLUSIONS: Metronidazole via 2HM/MTZ performed well as a novel, safe phenotyping probe for CYP2A6 in healthy adults.Tags: ((genetics/pharmacogenetics); antibiotics; cytochrome P450 (pharmacokinetics); cytochrome P450 enzymes; drug metabolism)
2015Evaluation of electronic cigarette liquids and aerosol for the presence of selected inhalation toxinsNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/2/2015)LINKINTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate sweet-flavored electronic cigarette (EC) liquids for the presence of diacetyl (DA) and acetyl propionyl (AP), which are chemicals approved for food use but are associated with respiratory disease when inhaled. METHODS: In total, 159 samples were purchased from 36 manufacturers and retailers in 7 countries. Additionally, 3 liquids were prepared by dissolving a concentrated flavor sample of known DA and AP levels at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentration in a mixture of propylene glycol and glycerol. Aerosol produced by an EC was analyzed to determine the concentration of DA and AP. RESULTS: DA and AP were found in 74.2% of the samples, with more samples containing DA. Similar concentrations were found in liquid and aerosol for both chemicals. The median daily exposure levels were 56 μg/day (IQR: 26-278 μg/day) for DA and 91 μg/day (IQR: 20-432 μg/day) for AP. They were slightly lower than the strict NIOSH-defined safety limits for occupational exposure and 100 and 10 times lower compared with smoking respectively; however, 47.3% of DA and 41.5% of AP-containing samples exposed consumers to levels higher than the safety limits. CONCLUSIONS: DA and AP were found in a large proportion of sweet-flavored EC liquids, with many of them exposing users to higher than safety levels. Their presence in EC liquids represents an avoidable risk. Proper measures should be taken by EC liquid manufacturers and flavoring suppliers to eliminate these hazards from the products without necessarily limiting the availability of sweet flavors.
2013Evaluation of electronic cigarette use (vaping) topography and estimation of liquid consumption: implications for research protocol standards definition and for public health authorities' regulationInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 6/18/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: Although millions of people are using electronic cigarettes (ECs) and research on this topic has intensified in recent years, the pattern of EC use has not been systematically studied. Additionally, no comparative measure of exposure and nicotine delivery between EC and tobacco cigarette or nicotine replacement therapy (NRTs) has been established. This is important, especially in the context of the proposal for a new Tobacco Product Directive issued by the European Commission. METHODS: A second generation EC device, consisting of a higher capacity battery and tank atomiser design compared to smaller cigarette-like batteries and cartomizers, and a 9 mg/mL nicotine-concentration liquid were used in this study. Eighty subjects were recruited; 45 experienced EC users and 35 smokers. EC users were video-recorded when using the device (ECIG group), while smokers were recorded when smoking (SM-S group) and when using the EC (SM-E group) in a randomized cross-over design. Puff, inhalation and exhalation duration were measured. Additionally, the amount of EC liquid consumed by experienced EC users was measured at 5 min (similar to the time needed to smoke one tobacco cigarette) and at 20 min (similar to the time needed for a nicotine inhaler to deliver 4 mg nicotine). RESULTS: Puff duration was significantly higher in ECIG (4.2 ± 0.7 s) compared to SM-S (2.1 ± 0.4 s) and SM-E (2.3 ± 0.5 s), while inhalation time was lower (1.3 ± 0.4, 2.1 ± 0.4 and 2.1 ± 0.4 respectively). No difference was observed in exhalation duration. EC users took 13 puffs and consumed 62 ± 16 mg liquid in 5 min; they took 43 puffs and consumed 219 ± 56 mg liquid in 20 min. Nicotine delivery was estimated at 0.46 ± 0.12 mg after 5 min and 1.63 ± 0.41 mg after 20 min of use. Therefore, 20.8 mg/mL and 23.8 mg/mL nicotine-containing liquids would deliver 1 mg of nicotine in 5 min and 4 mg nicotine in 20 min, respectively. Since the ISO method significantly underestimates nicotine delivery by tobacco cigarettes, it seems that liquids with even higher than 24 mg/mL nicotine concentration would be comparable to one tobacco cigarette. CONCLUSIONS: EC use topography is significantly different compared to smoking. Four-second puffs with 20-30 s interpuff interval should be used when assessing EC effects in laboratory experiments, provided that the equipment used does not get overheated. Based on the characteristics of the device used in this study, a 20 mg/mL nicotine concentration liquid would be needed in order to deliver nicotine at amounts similar to the maximum allowable content of one tobacco cigarette (as measured by the ISO 3308 method). The results of this study do not support the statement of the European Commission Tobacco Product Directive that liquids with nicotine concentration of 4 mg/mL are comparable to NRTs in the amount of nicotine delivered to the user.
2018Evaluation of the safety profile of an electronic vapour product used for two years by smokers in a real-life settingRegulatory toxicology and pharmacology (p. 1/2/2018)LINKThe safety profile of Puritane™, a closed system electronic vapour product (EVP), was evaluated when used by smokers of conventional cigarettes (CCs) for 24 months in a real-life setting. The study was a two-centre ambulatory clinical study with 209 healthy volunteers. Outcome measures included adverse events (AEs), vital signs, electrocardiogram, lung function tests, exposure to nicotine and selected smoke constituents, nicotine withdrawal effects and smoking desire. No serious AEs related to EVP use were observed. The most frequently reported AEs were headache, nasopharyngitis, sore throat and cough, reported by 28.7%, 28.7%, 19.6% and 16.7% of subjects, respectively, which dissipated over time. Small decreases in lung function were not considered clinically relevant. No clinically relevant findings were observed in the other safety parameters. From Month 2, nicotine withdrawal symptoms decreased. Smoking desire and CC consumption steadily decreased over time in all subjects. EVP use was associated with reduced exposure to cigarette smoke constituents, whereas urinary nicotine levels remained close to baseline. Body weight did not increase in CC subjects switching to the EVP. In conclusion, the aerosol of the EVP at study was well tolerated and not associated with any clinically relevant health concerns after usage for up to 24 months.Tags: (Adverse events; Biomarkers of exposure; Clinical study; Electronic cigarette; Electronic vapour product; Safety; Subjective effects)
2010Experimental exposure to propylene glycol mist in aviation emergency training: acute ocular and respiratory effectsOccupational and environmental medicine (p. 1/10/2001)LINKOBJECTIVES: Propylene glycol (PG) (1-2 propanediol; CAS No 57-55-6) is a low toxicity compound widely used as a food additive, in pharmaceutical preparations, in cosmetics, and in the workplace-for example, water based paints, de-icing fluids, and cooling liquids. Exposure to PG mist may occur from smoke generators in discotheques, theatres, and aviation emergency training. Propylene glycol may cause contact allergy, but there is sparse information on health effects from occupational exposure to PG. METHODS: Non-asthmatic volunteers (n=27) were exposed in an aircraft simulator to PG mist over 1 minute, during realistic training conditions. Geometric mean concentration of PG was 309 mg/m3 (range 176-851 mg/m3), with the highest concentrations in the afternoon. The medical investigation was performed both before and after the exposure (within 15 minutes). It included an estimate of tear film stability break up time, nasal patency by acoustic rhinometry, dynamic spirometry, and a doctor's administered questionnaire on symptoms. RESULTS: After exposure to PG mist for 1 minute tear film stability decreased, ocular and throat symptoms increased, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) was slightly reduced, and self rated severity of dyspnoea was slightly increased. No effect was found for nasal patency, vital capacity (VC), FVC, nasal symptoms, dermal symptoms, smell of solvent, or any systemic symptoms. Those exposed to the higher concentrations in the afternoon had a more pronounced increase of throat symptoms, and a more pronounced decrease of tear film stability. In four subjects who reported development of irritative cough during exposure to PG, FEV1 was decreased by 5%, but FEV1 was unchanged among those who did not develop a cough. Those who developed a cough also had an increased perception of mild dyspnoea. CONCLUSION: Short exposure to PG mist from artificial smoke generators may cause acute ocular and upper airway irritation in non-asthmatic subjects. A few may also react with cough and slight airway obstruction.
2019Experimental tobacco marketplace: substitutability of e-cigarette liquid for cigarettes as a function of nicotine strengthTobacco control (p. 1/3/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: The experimental tobacco marketplace (ETM) provides a method to estimate, prior to implementation, the effects of new products or policies on purchasing across various products in a complex tobacco marketplace. We used the ETM to examine the relationship between nicotine strength and substitutability of alternative products for cigarettes to contribute to the literature on regulation of e-liquid nicotine strength. METHODS: The present study contained four sampling and four ETM purchasing sessions. During sampling sessions, participants were provided 1 of 4 e-liquid strengths (randomised) to sample for 2 days followed by an ETM purchasing session. The nicotine strength sampled in the 2 days prior to an ETM session was the same strength available for purchase in the next ETM. Each participant sampled and could purchase 0 mg/mL, 6 mg/mL, 12 mg/mL and 24 mg/mL e-liquid, among other products, during the study. RESULTS: Cigarette demand was unaltered across e-liquid strength. E-liquid was the only product to substitute for cigarettes across more than one e-liquid strength. Substitutability increased as a function of e-liquid strength, with the 24 mg/mL displaying the greatest substitutability of all products. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found that e-liquid substitutability increased with nicotine strength, at least up to 24 mg/mL e-liquid. However, the effects of e-liquid nicotine strength on cigarette purchasing were marginal and total nicotine purchased increased as e-liquid nicotine strength increased.Tags: (economics; electronic nicotine delivery devices; harm reduction; nicotine; price)
2015Exposure to electronic cigarettes impairs pulmonary anti-bacterial and anti-viral defenses in a mouse modelPloS one (p. 2/4/2015)LINKElectronic cigarettes (E-cigs) have experienced sharp increases in popularity over the past five years due to many factors, including aggressive marketing, increased restrictions on conventional cigarettes, and a perception that E-cigs are healthy alternatives to cigarettes. Despite this perception, studies on health effects in humans are extremely limited and in vivo animal models have not been generated. Presently, we determined that E-cig vapor contains 7 x 10(11) free radicals per puff. To determine whether E-cig exposure impacts pulmonary responses in mice, we developed an inhalation chamber for E-cig exposure. Mice that were exposed to E-cig vapor contained serum cotinine concentrations that are comparable to human E-cig users. E-cig exposure for 2 weeks produced a significant increase in oxidative stress and moderate macrophage-mediated inflammation. Since, COPD patients are susceptible to bacterial and viral infections, we tested effects of E-cigs on immune response. Mice that were exposed to E-cig vapor showed significantly impaired pulmonary bacterial clearance, compared to air-exposed mice, following an intranasal infection with Streptococcus pneumonia. This defective bacterial clearance was partially due to reduced phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages from E-cig exposed mice. In response to Influenza A virus infection, E-cig exposed mice displayed increased lung viral titers and enhanced virus-induced illness and mortality. In summary, this study reports a murine model of E-cig exposure and demonstrates that E-cig exposure elicits impaired pulmonary anti-microbial defenses. Hence, E-cig exposure as an alternative to cigarette smoking must be rigorously tested in users for their effects on immune response and susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections.
2015Factors associated with dual use of tobacco and electronic cigarettes: A case control studyThe International journal on drug policy (p. 1/6/2015)LINKBACKGROUND: Many electronic cigarette (EC) users reduce cigarette consumption without completely quitting. It is important to assess the characteristics and experiences of these users, commonly called dual users"", in comparison with EC users who have completely substituted smoking (non-smoking vapers). METHODS: A questionnaire was uploaded in an online survey tool. EC users were invited to participate irrespective of their current smoking status. Dual users were matched for age and gender with non-smoking vapers. RESULTS: From 19 often described as reduced-risk"" nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However"
2020Favorable Changes in Biomarkers of Potential Harm to Reduce the Adverse Health Effects of Smoking in Smokers Switching to the Menthol Tobacco Heating System 2.2 for 3 Months (Part 2)Nicotine & tobacco research (p. 4/17/2020)LINKINTRODUCTION: Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2, a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, aims at offering an alternative to cigarettes for smokers while substantially reducing the exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents found in cigarette smoke. METHODS: One hundred and sixty healthy adult US smokers participated in this randomized, three-arm parallel group, controlled clinical study. Subjects were randomized in a 2:1:1 ratio to menthol Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (mTHS), menthol cigarette, or smoking abstinence for 5 days in confinement and 86 subsequent ambulatory days. Endpoints included biomarkers of exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents (reported in our co-publication, Part 1) and biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH). RESULTS: Compliance (protocol and allocated product exposure) was 51% and 18% in the mTHS and smoking abstinence arms, respectively, on day 90. Nonetheless, favorable changes in BOPHs of lipid metabolism (total cholesterol and high- and low-density cholesterol), endothelial dysfunction (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1), oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin F2α), and cardiovascular risk factors (eg, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were observed in the mTHS group. Favorable effects in other BOPHs, including ones related to platelet activation (11-dehydrothromboxane B2) and metabolic syndrome (glucose), were more pronounced in normal weight subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the reduced exposure demonstrated when switching to mTHS is associated with overall improvements in BOPHs, which are indicative of pathomechanistic pathways underlying the development of smoking-related diseases, with some stronger effects in normal weight subjects. IMPLICATIONS: Switching to mTHS was associated with favorable changes for some BOPHs indicative of biological pathway alterations (eg, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction). The results suggest that switching to mTHS has the potential to reduce the adverse health effects of smoking and ultimately the risk of smoking-related diseases. Switching to mTHS for 90 days led to reductions in a number of biomarkers of exposure in smokers, relative to those who continued smoking cigarettes, which were close to those observed when stopping smoking (reported in our co-publication, Part 1). Initial findings suggest reduced levels of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, when switching to mTHS for 90 days. These changes are comparable to what is observed upon smoking cessation. In normal weight subjects, additional favorable changes were seen in 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, fibrinogen, homocysteine, hs-CRP, percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glucose, high-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A1, and triglycerides. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01989156.
2019Feeling Hopeful Motivates Change: Emotional Responses to Messages Communicating Comparative Risk of Electronic Cigarettes and Combusted CigarettesHealth education & behavior (p. 1/6/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: Emotions are important in smoking-related communications, but the role of discrete positive and negative emotions in comparative risk messages about combusted and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is unclear. METHOD: In an online experiment, 1,202 U.S. adult current smokers or recent quitters were randomized to view one of six messages about comparative risk of e-cigarettes and cigarettes. Participants reported their feelings of hope, happiness, fear, guilt, disgust, and anger and risk perceptions and behavioral intentions about e-cigarettes and cigarettes. RESULTS: Hope was associated with higher perceived absolute cigarette risk, lower perceived absolute and comparative e-cigarette risk, and stronger intentions to quit smoking, seek quit help, use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), switch to e-cigarettes, and use e-cigarettes exclusively versus dual use. Happiness was related to stronger intentions to seek quit help, use NRT, and switch to e-cigarettes but higher perceived comparative risk of e-cigarettes. Fear was associated with stronger intentions to quit smoking, seek quit help, use NRT, and switch to e-cigarettes. Guilt was related to higher perceived absolute cigarette risk, lower perceived comparative e-cigarette risk, and stronger intentions to use NRT. Disgust was associated with higher absolute and comparative e-cigarette risk and stronger intentions to quit smoking, seek quit help, and use e-cigarettes exclusively versus dual use. Anger was related to lower perceived absolute cigarette risk, higher perceived comparative e-cigarette risk, and weaker intentions to quit smoking. CONCLUSION: Comparative risk messages about e-cigarettes that arouse hope, fear, and guilt and avoid anger might be particularly likely to have positive impact on smokers.Tags: (cigarettes; communication; comparative risk; electronic cigarettes; emotion; hope)
2017Fine particles in homes of predominantly low-income families with children and smokers: Key physical and behavioral determinants to inform indoor-air-quality interventionsPloS one (p. 5/17/2017)LINKChildren are at risk for adverse health outcomes from occupant-controllable indoor airborne contaminants in their homes. Data are needed to design residential interventions for reducing low-income children's pollutant exposure. Using customized air quality monitors, we continuously measured fine particle counts (0.5 to 2.5 microns) over a week in living areas of predominantly low-income households in San Diego, California, with at least one child (under age 14) and at least one cigarette smoker. We performed retrospective interviews on home characteristics, and particle source and ventilation activities occurring during the week of monitoring. We explored the relationship between weekly mean particle counts and interview responses using graphical visualization and multivariable linear regression (base sample n = 262; complete cases n = 193). We found associations of higher weekly mean particle counts with reports of indoor smoking of cigarettes or marijuana, as well as with frying food, using candles or incense, and house cleaning. Lower particle levels were associated with larger homes. We did not observe an association between lower mean particle counts and reports of opening windows, using kitchen exhaust fans, or other ventilation activities. Our findings about sources of fine airborne particles and their mitigation can inform future studies that investigate more effective feedback on residential indoor-air-quality and better strategies for reducing occupant exposures.
2016Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-CigarettesEnvironmental health perspectives (p. 1/6/2016)LINKBACKGROUND: There are > 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as popcorn lung." There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals"
2016Flavoring Compounds Dominate Toxic Aldehyde Production during E-Cigarette VapingEnvironmental science & technology (p. 12/6/2016)LINKThe growing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) raises concerns about the possibility of adverse health effects to primary users and people exposed to e-cigarette vapors. E-Cigarettes offer a very wide variety of flavors, which is one of the main factors that attract new, especially young, users. How flavoring compounds in e-cigarette liquids affect the chemical composition and toxicity of e-cigarette vapors is practically unknown. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as safer alternatives to traditional cigarettes, several studies have demonstrated formation of toxic aldehydes in e-cigarette vapors during vaping. So far, aldehyde formation has been attributed to thermal decomposition of the main components of e-cigarette e-liquids (propylene glycol and glycerol), while the role of flavoring compounds has been ignored. In this study, we have measured several toxic aldehydes produced by three popular brands of e-cigarettes with flavored and unflavored e-liquids. We show that, within the tested e-cigarette brands, thermal decomposition of flavoring compounds dominates formation of aldehydes during vaping, producing levels that exceed occupational safety standards. Production of aldehydes was found to be exponentially dependent on concentration of flavoring compounds. These findings stress the need for a further, thorough investigation of the effect of flavoring compounds on the toxicity of e-cigarettes.
2014Four hundred and sixty brands of e-cigarettes and counting: implications for product regulationTobacco control (p. 1/7/2014)LINKINTRODUCTION: E-cigarettes are largely unregulated and internet sales are substantial. This study examines how the online market for e-cigarettes has changed over time: in product design and in marketing messages appearing on websites. METHODS: Comprehensive internet searches of English-language websites from May-August 2012 and December 2013-January 2014 identified brands, models, flavours, nicotine strengths, ingredients and product claims. Brands were divided into older and newer groups (by the two searches) for comparison. RESULTS: By January 2014 there were 466 brands (each with its own website) and 7764 unique flavours. In the 17 months between the searches, there was a net increase of 10.5 brands and 242 new flavours per month. Older brands were more likely than newer brands to offer cigalikes (86.9% vs. 52.1%, p<0.01), and newer brands more likely to offer the more versatile eGos and mods (75.3% vs. 57.8%, p<0.01). Older brands were significantly more likely to claim that they were healthier and cheaper than cigarettes, were good substitutes where smoking was banned and were effective smoking cessation aids. Newer brands offered more flavours per brand (49 vs. 32, p<0.01) and were less likely to compare themselves with conventional cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: The number of e-cigarette brands is large and has been increasing. Older brands tend to highlight their advantages over conventional cigarettes while newer brands emphasise consumer choice in multiple flavours and product versatility. These results can serve as a benchmark for future research on the impact of upcoming regulations on product design and advertising messages of e-cigarettes.Tags: (Advertising and Promotion; Electronic Nicotine Delivery Devices; Harm Reduction; Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products; Public Policy)
2016Gender differences in use and expectancies of e-cigarettes: Online survey resultsAddictive behaviors (p. 1/1/2016)LINKINTRODUCTION: Given the rapid increase in e-cigarette use, it is important to understand factors that may contribute to their initiation and maintenance. Because gender differences in tobacco use, product preferences, and expectancies are well established, similar gender differences may exist with e-cigarettes. The aim of this study was to identify gender differences among e-cigarette users in patterns of use, reasons for initiation and maintenance, and outcome expectancies regarding e-cigarettes. METHODS: Participants (N=1815) completed an online survey from August through November, 2013. We assessed sociodemographics, smoking and e-cigarette history and use, and expectancies about e-cigarettes. RESULTS: We found gender differences in type of e-cigarette used, flavors used, nicotine dosage, source of information about e-cigarettes, place of purchase, and use of e-cigarettes where smoking is prohibited. In addition, males were more likely to report initiating e-cigarette use to quit smoking due to health concerns, whereas females were more likely to report initiation based on recommendations from family and friends. Males reported higher attributions for maintenance of e-cigarette use related to positive reinforcement (enjoyment), whereas females reported higher negative reinforcement attributions (stress reduction or mood management). Males reported more positive expectancies about e-cigarettes, including taste, social facilitation, and energy, whereas women rated e-cigarettes higher for weight control. Males also reported greater addiction-related e-cigarette expectancy than females. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the gender differences with e-cigarettes parallel those previously found with traditional cigarette smoking. Although effect sizes associated with these differences were small, the results may help advance research and intervention development with respect to e-cigarette initiation, maintenance and cessation.Tags: (Cigarettes; Electronic cigarettes; Expectancies; Gender differences; Online survey)
2019GPs' and nurses' perceptions of electronic cigarettes in England: a qualitative interview studyThe British journal of general practice (p. 1/1/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: Reports from royal colleges and organisations such as Public Health England suggest that GPs and nurses should advise patients to switch to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) if they do not want to stop smoking using licensed medication. However, there are no data on what practitioners think, feel, or do about e-cigarettes. AIM: To explore practitioners' perceptions and attitudes towards e-cigarettes, and their experiences of discussing e-cigarettes with patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: A qualitative interview study was carried out with semi-structured interviews conducted with nurses and GPs across England in 2017. METHOD: Participants were interviewed once either via telephone or face to face. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted with 23 practitioners (eight nurses and 15 GPs). There were three key themes: ambivalence and uncertainty; pragmatism; and responsibility. Many practitioners had uncertainties about the safety and long-term risks of e-cigarettes. Some had ambivalence about their own knowledge and ability to advise on their use, as well as uncertainty about whether to and what to advise patients. Despite this, many sought to provide honesty in consultations by acknowledging these uncertainties about e-cigarettes with patients and taking a pragmatic approach, believing that e-cigarettes were a 'step in the right direction'. Practitioners wanted advice from healthcare regulators such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence to reassure them about the safety of e-cigarettes, practical tools to support the consultation, and to control their use by providing behavioural support programmes for reduction or cessation. CONCLUSION: Current dissemination strategies for guidelines are not effective in reaching practitioners, who are offering more cautious advice about e-cigarettes than guidelines suggest is reasonable.Tags: (electronic cigarettes; harm reduction; primary care; smoking)
2018Harm Minimization and Tobacco Control: Reframing Societal Views of Nicotine Use to Rapidly Save LivesAnnual review of public health (p. 4/1/2018)LINKInhalation of the toxic smoke produced by combusting tobacco products, primarily cigarettes, is the overwhelming cause of tobacco-related disease and death in the United States and globally. A diverse class of alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS) has recently been developed that do not combust tobacco and are substantially less harmful than cigarettes. ANDS have the potential to disrupt the 120-year dominance of the cigarette and challenge the field on how the tobacco pandemic could be reversed if nicotine is decoupled from lethal inhaled smoke. ANDS may provide a means to compete with, and even replace, combusted cigarette use, saving more lives more rapidly than previously possible. On the basis of the scientific evidence on ANDS, we explore benefits and harms to public health to guide practice, policy, and regulation. A reframing of societal nicotine use through the lens of harm minimization is an extraordinary opportunity to enhance the impact of tobacco control efforts.Tags: (e-cigarettes; harm minimization; nicotine; smoking; tobacco)
2018Harm perceptions of electronic cigarettes and nicotine: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey of young people in Great BritainDrug and alcohol dependence (p. 11/1/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: E-cigarettes often contain nicotine without the most harmful constituents of tobacco smoke. AIMS: This study aims to assess prevalence and correlates of accurately perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes and that none or a small amount of the harm from smoking comes from nicotine. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 2,103 11-18-year-olds in Great Britain in 2016. Prevalence of e-cigarette and nicotine harm perceptions were calculated. Logistic regressions assessed associations between accurate e-cigarette and nicotine harm perceptions and smoking, e-cigarette use, gender, age, region, social grade, family smoking, family e-cigarette use, smoking friends, public approval of smoking, and public approval of e-cigarettes. Associations between accurate e-cigarette and nicotine harm perceptions were also assessed. RESULTS: Most (63.4%) accurate e-cigarette harm perceptions were higher among those aged 16+ (OR = 1.89 [95%CI = 1.45-2.47]), 14-15 (OR = 1.29 [1.00-1.65]), who tried/used an e-cigarette sometimes (OR = 1.51 [1.03-2.21]), with family e-cigarette use (OR = 2.11 [1.46-3.04]), who perceived public disapproval of smoking (OR = 2.11 [1.18-3.77]) and approval of e-cigarettes (OR = 2.44 [1.73-3.45]), and with accurate nicotine harm perceptions (OR = 2.05 [1.28-3.28]). Accurate nicotine harm perceptions were higher among those aged 16+ (OR = 2.60 [1.62-4.16]), from North England (OR = 1.87 [1.02-3.43]) and Wales/Scotland (OR = 2.61 [1.35-5.03]) vs. London, with family smoking (OR = 1.59 [1.05-2.42]), and with accurate e-cigarette harm perceptions (OR = 2.12 [1.32-3.41]). CONCLUSIONS: Many young people have inaccurate harm perceptions of e-cigarettes and nicotine. Accurate e-cigarette and nicotine harm perceptions were associated with one another. E-cigarette use was associated with accurate e-cigarette but not nicotine harm perceptions; smoking was not associated with either.Tags: (Electronic cigarette; Harm perception; Nicotine; Smoking; Tobacco; Youth)
2018Health effects in COPD smokers who switch to electronic cigarettes: a retrospective-prospective 3-year follow-upInternational journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p. 8/22/2018)LINKBackground: Health effects of electronic cigarette (EC) use in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are largely unexplored. Aim: We present findings from a long-term prospective assessment of respiratory parameters in a cohort of COPD patients who ceased or substantially reduced conventional cigarette use with ECs. Methods: We prospectively re-evaluated COPD exacerbations, spirometric indices, subjective assessments (using the COPD Assessment Tool [CAT] scores), physical activity (measured by the 6-minute walk distance [6MWD]), and conventional cigarette use in EC users with COPD who were retrospectively assessed previously. Baseline measurements prior to switching to EC use were compared to follow-up visits at 12, 24, and 36 months. Age- and sex-matched regularly smoking COPD patients who were not using ECs were included as reference (control) group. Results: Complete data were available from 44 patients. Compared to baseline in the EC-user group, there was a marked decline in the use of conventional cigarettes. Although there was no change in lung function, significant improvements in COPD exacerbation rates, CAT scores, and 6MWD were observed consistently in the EC user group over the 3-year period (p<0.01). Similar findings were noted in COPD EC users who also smoked conventional cigarettes (dual users"). Conclusion: The present study suggests that EC use may ameliorate objective and subjective COPD outcomes and that the benefits gained may persist long-term. EC use may reverse some of the harm resulting from tobacco smoking in COPD patients.""" COPD; electronic cigarette; smoking cessation; tobacco harm reductionTags: (COPD; electronic cigarette; smoking cessation; tobacco harm reduction)
2017Health impact of E-cigarettes: a prospective 3.5-year study of regular daily users who have never smokedScientific reports (p. 11/17/2017)LINKAlthough electronic cigarettes (ECs) are a much less harmful alternative to tobacco cigarettes, there is concern as to whether long-term ECs use may cause risks to human health. We report health outcomes (blood pressure, heart rate, body weight, lung function, respiratory symptoms, exhaled breath nitric oxide [eNO], exhaled carbon monoxide [eCO], and high-resolution computed tomography [HRCT] of the lungs) from a prospective 3.5-year observational study of a cohort of nine daily EC users (mean age 29.7 (±6.1) years) who have never smoked and a reference group of twelve never smokers. No significant changes could be detected over the observation period from baseline in the EC users or between EC users and control subjects in any of the health outcomes investigated. Moreover, no pathological findings could be identified on HRCT of the lungs and no respiratory symptoms were consistently reported in the EC user group. Although it cannot be excluded that some harm may occur at later stages, this study did not demonstrate any health concerns associated with long-term use of EC in relatively young users who did not also smoke tobacco.
2013Health-related effects reported by electronic cigarette users in online forumsJournal of medical Internet research (p. 4/8/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: The health effects caused by electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to document the positive and negative short-term health effects produced by e-cigarette use through an analysis of original posts from three online e-cigarettes forums. METHODS: Data were collected into Microsoft Access databases and analyzed using Cytoscape association graphics, frequency distributions, and interactomes to determine the number and type of health effects reported, the organ systems affected the frequency of specific effects, and systems interactions. RESULTS: A total of 405 different symptoms due to e-cigarette use were reported from three forums. Of these, 78 were positive, 326 were negative, and one was neutral. While the reported health effects were similar in all three forums, the forum with the most posts was analyzed in detail. Effects, which were reported for 12 organ systems/anatomical regions, occurred most often in the mouth and throat and in the respiratory, neurological, sensory, and digestive systems. Users with negative symptoms often reported more than one symptom, and in these cases interactions were often seen between systems, such as the circulatory and neurological systems. Positive effects usually occurred singly and most frequently affected the respiratory system. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first compilation and analysis of the health effects reported by e-cigarette users in online forums. These data show that e-cigarette use can have wide ranging positive and negative effects and that online forums provide a useful resource for examining how e-cigarette use affects health.
2015Hidden formaldehyde in e-cigarette aerosolsThe New England journal of medicine (p. 1/22/2015)LINK
2018High-Wattage E-Cigarettes Induce Tissue Hypoxia and Lower Airway Injury: A Randomized Clinical TrialAmerican journal of respiratory and critical care medicine (p. 7/1/2018)LINK
2015Highly reactive free radicals in electronic cigarette aerosolsChemical research in toxicology (p. 9/21/2015)LINKElectronic cigarette (EC) usage has increased exponentially, but limited data are available on its potential harmful effects. We tested for the presence of reactive, short-lived free radicals in EC aerosols by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) using the spin-trap phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN). Radicals were detected in aerosols from all ECs and eliquids tested (2.5 × 10(13) to 10.3 × 10(13) radicals per puff at 3.3 V) and from eliquid solvents propylene glycol and glycerol and from dry puffing". These results demonstrate" for the first time
2014How are the English Stop Smoking Services responding to growth in use of electronic cigarettes?Patient education and counseling (p. 1/2/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: To assess extent of electronic cigarette use by smokers attending Stop Smoking Services, the advice given about electronic cigarettes and whether this usage is recorded. METHODS: Fifty-eight managers and 1284 practitioners completed an online survey. Questions covered use of electronic cigarettes, the advice given and whether use was recorded in client databases. RESULTS: Ninety per cent (n=1150) and 95% (n=1215) of practitioners respectively, reported that their clients were using electronic cigarettes and that they had been asked about them. Seventy-one per cent (n=41) of managers reported that they had a policy on the advice to be given; of whom 85% (n=35) said that practitioners should say that products were unlicensed. Fifty-five per cent (n=707) of practitioners reported giving such advice and 11% (n=138) said they warned smokers about their safety. Only 9% (n=119) reported that they recorded clients' use. CONCLUSION: Although use of electronic cigarettes by smokers in Stop Smoking Services is common, few provisions are in place to record their use. Practitioners mostly advise that products are not licensed. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: There is a need to consider additional training for practitioners on use of e-cigarettes and harm reduction generally to ensure that advice is consistent and evidence-based.Tags: (Electronic cigarettes; Practitioners; Smoking; Stop Smoking Services)
2018How do electronic cigarettes affect cravings to smoke or vape? Parsing the influences of nicotine and expectancies using the balanced-placebo designJournal of consulting and clinical psychology (p. 1/5/2018)LINKOBJECTIVE: Although electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are frequently initiated for smoking cessation, results from the first two clinical trials testing this suggest that the perceived benefits of vaping may be influenced by non-nicotine factors, including cognitive outcome expectancies. The current study investigated the separate and combined effects of nicotine delivery and outcome expectancies on cravings for cigarettes and e-cigarettes using a balanced-placebo experiment. METHOD: Drug dosage (contains nicotine or not) was crossed with instructional set (told nicotine or non-nicotine) during ad lib e-cigarette use sessions by 128 current e-cigarette users (52 identifying as current cigarette smokers or dual users"). It was hypothesized that reduction in craving for both cigarettes and e-cigarettes following e-cigarette administration would be driven primarily by the instructional set manipulation" reflecting the influence of outcome expectancies. RESULTS: As hypothesized
2014How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth centuryArchives of toxicology (p. 1/1/2014)LINK
2010How safe is an e-cigarette? The results of independent chemical and microbiological analysis(p. 1/3/200)LINK
2010Identification of amino-tadalafil and rimonabant in electronic cigarette products using high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometric detectionJournal of chromatography. A (p. 11/26/2010)LINKA high-pressure liquid chromatography-diode array detection and multi-mode ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MMI-MS/MS) method was used to identify amino-tadalafil and rimonabant in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) cartridges. Amino-tadalafil is a drug analogue of the commercially approved Cialis™ (i.e. tadalafil). Rimonabant is a drug that was, at one time, approved for weight loss in Europe (although approval has been retracted), but not in the United States. In addition, poor quality control over the e-cigarette products analyzed here is shown by the presence of nicotine in products labeled as containing no nicotine or by the presence of significant amounts of rimonabant oxidative degradant in e-cigarette products containing rimonabant. Identification was accomplished by comparing the retention time of relevant peaks in the sample with those of standard compounds, in addition to comparison of the UV spectra, mass spectra and/or product ion mass spectra.
2014Identification of toxicants in cinnamon-flavored electronic cigarette refill fluidsToxicology in vitro (p. 1/3/2014)LINKIn a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic of 36 products tested. The purpose of the current study was to determine if high cytotoxicity is a general feature of cinnamon-flavored EC refill fluids and to identify the toxicant(s) in Cinnamon Ceylon. Eight cinnamon-flavored refill fluids, which were screened using the MTT assay, varied in their cytotoxicity with most being cytotoxic. Human embryonic stem cells were generally more sensitive than human adult pulmonary fibroblasts. Most products were highly volatile and produced vapors that impaired survival of cells in adjacent wells. Cinnamaldehyde (CAD), 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2MOCA), dipropylene glycol, and vanillin were identified in the cinnamon-flavored refill fluids using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). When authentic standards of each chemical were tested using the MTT assay, only CAD and 2MOCA were highly cytotoxic. The amount of each chemical in the refill fluids was quantified using HPLC, and cytotoxicity correlated with the amount of CAD/product. Duplicate bottles of the same product were similar, but varied in their concentrations of 2MOCA. These data show that the cinnamon flavorings in refill fluids are linked to cytotoxicity, which could adversely affect EC users.
2013Immediate effects of electronic cigarette use on coronary circulation and blood carboxyhemoglobin levels: comparison with cigarette smokingEuropean heart journal (p. 8/2/2013)LINKPurpose: Cigarette smoking causes an acute elevation in carboxyhemoglobin levels (HbCO) and has immediate adverse effects on coronary circulation. The goal of tTags: (smoking; coronary circulation; carboxyhemoglobin measurement; electronic cigarettes; carboxyhemoglobin; cigarettes; medical devices; nicotine; adenosine; intravenous route of drug administration; caffeine use; fluid flow; intravenous infusion procedures; microcirculation; smoke; vascular resistance; heart rate; blood pressure)
2013Impact of an electronic cigarette on smoking reduction and cessation in schizophrenic smokers: a prospective 12-month pilot studyInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 1/28/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. This dependence is the most common dual diagnosis for individuals with schizophrenia. Currently three effective drugs are approved for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline and bupropion. However, some serious side effects of varenicline have been reported, including depression, suicidal thoughts, and suicide. The use of bupropion also has side effects. It should not be used by people who have epilepsy or any condition that lowers the seizure threshold, nor by people who take a specific class of drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Hence, there are pharmacodynamic reason to believe they could precipitate or exacerbate psychosis. For its capacity to deliver nicotine and provide a coping mechanism for conditioned smoking cues by replacing some of the rituals associated with smoking gestures, electronic-cigarettes may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms without serious side effects. Our recent work with ECs in healthy smokers not intending to quit consistently show surprisingly high success rates. We hypothesised that these positive findings could be replicated in difficult patients with schizophrenia This tool may help smokers with schizophrenia remain abstinent during their quitting attempts or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy and safety of these devices in long-term smoking cessation and/or smoking reduction studies have never been investigated for this special population. METHODS: In this study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 14 smokers (not intending to quit) with schizophrenia experimenting with the Categoria" e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend six study visits: at baseline"
2016Impact of e-cigarette refill liquid exposure on rat kidneyRegulatory toxicology and pharmacology (p. 1/6/2016)LINKElectronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette), the alternative to classic cigarettes are becoming extremely popular but their safety is not still established. Recent studies have showed cytotoxic effects of the electronic cigarette and its recharge e-liquid, in vitro. The present study was designed to evaluate e-cigarette liquid nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, 32 rats were treated for 28 days as follows: Control group was injected intraperitoneally with NaCl 9 g/l; e-cigarette 0% treated group received an intraperitoneal injection of e-liquid without nicotine diluted in NaCl 9 g/l, e-cigarette treated group, received an intraperitoneal injection of e-liquid containing 0.5 mg of nicotine/kg of body weight/day diluted in NaCl 9 g/l and nicotine-treated group received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mg of nicotine/kg of body weight/day diluted in NaCl 9 g/l. In nicotine group, creatinine level was increased, whereas urea and acid uric levels were decreased. In e-liquid-exposed groups, levels of uric acid and mainly urea were lower. Interestingly, after e-liquid exposure, oxidative stress status showed increased total protein and sulfhydril content, whereas superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were decreased. However, the levels of lipid peroxides were not increased after e-liquid exposure. Histological studies identified excess of cells with reduced and dark nuclei exclusively located in the renal collecting ducts. Thus, e-liquid seems to alter anti-oxidant defense and to promote minor changes in renal function parameters. This preliminary study raises some flags about possible nephrotoxicity of e-cigarette liquids in rats. As some features observed in rats may not be observed in human smokers, additional studies are needed to further qualify conclusions that might be applicable to actual users of e-cigarettes.Tags: (Histopathology; Kidney injury; Oxidative stress; Rat; e-liquid)
2020Impact of E-cigarette Sampling on Cigarette Dependence and Reinforcement ValueNicotine & tobacco research (p. 2/6/2020)LINKINTRODUCTION: E-cigarettes have risen in prevalence in recent years, and most public health experts agree they deliver fewer toxicants than combustible tobacco products such as cigarettes. Thus, it is important to understand how use of e-cigarettes by current smokers impacts dependence on combustible cigarettes. METHODS: The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomized pilot trial of e-cigarette sampling. Nontreatment seeking current smokers were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to either receive or not receive a weekly supply of e-cigarettes for 3 weeks. Participants completed the Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) scale and the cigarette purchase task before and after the sampling period and at monthly follow-up visits for 3 months. RESULTS: Individuals assigned to receive an e-cigarette had significantly lower mean WISDM scores at the end of sampling and the end of the follow-up period compared with those in the control group. Both frequency of e-cigarette use as well as nicotine concentration of the e-cigarette given to smokers were significant predictors of changes in the mean WISDM score. E-cigarette sampling significantly reduced the demand parameter Omax, which measures the maximum amount of money participants estimate they would spend on cigarettes in a single day. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that current smokers who try using an e-cigarette may experience reductions in dependence on combustible cigarettes. IMPLICATIONS: The present analysis suggests that providing an e-cigarette to current cigarette smokers is likely to reduce cigarette dependence, especially if the e-cigarette delivers sufficient nicotine and is used frequently.
2018Impact of Tobacco Versus Electronic Cigarette Smoking on Platelet FunctionThe American journal of cardiology (p. 11/1/2018)LINKElectronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) have become popular as substitutes for conventional tobacco cigarettes or to aid quitting, but little is known about the potential risks to cardiovascular health for smokers and nonsmokers. We sought to compare the impact of E-cigarettes with conventional cigarettes on platelet function in healthy adult smokers and nonsmokers. A crossover single-blind study in 40 healthy participants (20 smokers, 20 nonsmokers, matched for age and sex) was conducted. Each participant smoked a conventional cigarette then returned 1 week later to vape a study E-cigarette with the same nominal nicotine content. Blood samples were drawn shortly before and 5 minutes after each episode and analyzed for platelet aggregation, soluble CD40-ligand (sCD40L) and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin). At baseline, smokers had significantly higher levels of sCD40L and sP-selectin (all p ≤0.01) than nonsmokers. Within 5 minutes of using either a conventional cigarette or E-cigarette, changes in the levels of sCD40L, sP-selectin, and platelet aggregation (all p ≤0.01) were detectable in both smokers and nonsmokers. In smokers, there were no significant changes in sCD40L and sP-selectin but there was a significant increase in platelet aggregation. In nonsmokers, there was a significant increase in all markers of platelet activation following both cigarette and E-cigarette use. Both traditional and E-cigarettes have short-term effects on platelet activation, although in nonsmokers the use of E-cigarettes had a less important impact. In conclusion, we provide the first comparison data of the acute impact of Tobacco-cigarette and E-cigarette smoking on the platelet function in smokers and nonsmokers.
2015In twist, scientists join tobacco companies to fight cancer- (p. 6/23/2015)LINKScientists who have devoted years developing medicines to cure disease are now working for tobacco companies to make e-cigarettes.
2013In vitro particle size distributions in electronic and conventional cigarette aerosols suggest comparable deposition patternsNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/2/2013)LINKINTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette users (vapers") inhale aerosols of water"Tags: (nicotine)
2017Increased Cardiac Sympathetic Activity and Oxidative Stress in Habitual Electronic Cigarette Users: Implications for Cardiovascular RiskJAMA cardiology (p. 3/1/2017)LINKImportance: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained unprecedented popularity, but virtually nothing is known about their cardiovascular risks. Objective: To test the hypothesis that an imbalance of cardiac autonomic tone and increased systemic oxidative stress and inflammation are detectable in otherwise healthy humans who habitually use e-cigarettes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional case-control study of habitual e-cigarette users and nonuser control individuals from 2015 to 2016 at the University of California, Los Angeles. Otherwise healthy habitual e-cigarette users between the ages of 21 and 45 years meeting study criteria, including no current tobacco cigarette smoking and no known health problems or prescription medications, were eligible for enrollment. Healthy volunteers meeting these inclusion criteria who were not e-cigarette users were eligible to be enrolled as control individuals. A total of 42 participants meeting these criteria were enrolled in the study including 23 self-identified habitual e-cigarette users and 19 self-identified non-tobacco cigarette, non-e-cigarette user control participants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Heart rate variability components were analyzed for the high-frequency component (0.15-0.4 Hz), an indicator of vagal activity, the low-frequency component (0.04-0.15 Hz), a mixture of both vagal and sympathetic activity, and the ratio of the low frequency to high frequency, reflecting the cardiac sympathovagal balance. Three parameters of oxidative stress were measured in plasma: (1) low-density lipoprotein oxidizability, (2) high-density lipoprotein antioxidant/anti-inflammatory capacity, and (3) paraoxonase-1 activity. Results: Of the 42 participants, 35% were women, 35% were white, and the mean age was 27.6 years. The high-frequency component was significantly decreased in the e-cigarette users compared with nonuser control participants (mean [SEM], 46.5 [3.7] nu vs 57.8 [3.6] nu; P = .04). The low-frequency component (mean [SEM], 52.7 [4.0] nu vs 39.9 [3.8] nu; P = .03) and the low frequency to high frequency ratio (mean [SEM], 1.37 [0.19] vs 0.85 [0.18]; P = .05) were significantly increased in the e-cigarette users compared with nonuser control participants, consistent with sympathetic predominance. Low-density lipoprotein oxidizability, indicative of the susceptibility of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to oxidation, was significantly increased in e-cigarette users compared with nonuser control individuals (mean [SEM], 3801.0 [415.7] U vs 2413.3 [325.0] U; P = .01) consistent with increased oxidative stress, but differences in high-density antioxidant/anti-inflammatory capacity and paraoxonase-1 activity were not significant. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, habitual e-cigarette use was associated with a shift in cardiac autonomic balance toward sympathetic predominance and increased oxidative stress, both associated with increased cardiovascular risk.
2019Increasing Receptivity to Messages about E-Cigarette Risk Using Vicarious-AffirmationJournal of health communication (p. 4/15/2019)LINKEmpirical research has found that self-affirmation that precedes exposure to threatening information can reduce resistance and exert a positive effect on attitudes and beliefs. However, the effortful methods currently used to induce self-affirmation (e.g., writing an essay about an important value) limit its applicability. Informed by narrative persuasion literature, we present an experimental study designed to assess the potential of vicarious-affirmation (i.e., affirmation through a relevant exemplar in a fictional story) to influence perceived risk and behavioral intent among college-age electronic cigarette users (N = 832). Similar to traditional self-affirmation, a story that affirmed its character (by winning an award) before introducing tobacco-related risk information, led to greater perceived risk and increased intentions to stop using electronic-cigarettes. Identification with the character led to more positive self-appraisal, which, in turn, reduced message derogation and enhanced perceived risk. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and applied implications of integrating narrative persuasion with self-affirmation theory.
2019Influence of electronic cigarette liquid flavors and nicotine concentration on subjective measures of abuse liability in young adult cigarette smokersDrug and alcohol dependence (p. 10/1/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: A rapidly evolving tobacco marketplace highlights the timeliness of the FDA's authority to regulate tobacco, specifically the role that flavorings in nicotine-containing electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids have on public health. This study aimed to evaluate the extent to which ECIG liquid flavor and nicotine concentration influenced subjective measures of abuse liability among young adult cigarette (cig) smokers. METHODS: Young adult (18-21 y.o.) smokers (M = 10.1 cig/day, no regular ECIG use history) completed 7 Latin-square ordered conditions each preceded by 12 h. nicotine/tobacco abstinence. Conditions were own brand cig (OB) and eGo-style ECIG paired with three liquid flavors (cream, tropical fruit, tobacco/menthol) varying in nicotine concentration (0 or 36 mg/ml). Products were administered in two 10-puff bouts in each condition. Heart rate/blood pressure (HR/BP) and tobacco/nicotine abstinence symptoms, nicotine/general drug effects, and acceptability measures were assessed repeatedly throughout sessions. Mixed linear models were followed-up with Tukey's HSD t-tests. RESULTS: HR/BP indicated nicotine exposure during nicotine-containing conditions. OB and tobacco/menthol 36 mg/ml conditions produced significant decreases in ratings of cig smoking urges. Nicotine/drug effects were elevated significantly for OB and 36 mg/ml ECIG conditions with one exception noted for the tobacco/menthol 0 mg/ml condition. OB had the highest acceptability ratings, and ECIG condition results varied by acceptability item. CONCLUSIONS: Among young adult smokers, ECIG conditions containing nicotine were positively associated with several subjective measures of abuse liability but not all. Flavors did not consistently mask/enhance effects observed. Results reinforce continued examination of ECIG-delivered nicotine and liquid flavors in relationship to abuse liability.Tags: (Abuse liability; Cigarette smoking; Electronic cigarette; Flavor; Nicotine; Subjective; Young adult)
2014Influential parameters on particle concentration and size distribution in the mainstream of e-cigarettesEnvironmental pollution (p. 1/1/2014)LINKElectronic cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of particle number concentrations and size distributions through a Condensation Particle Counter and a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer spectrometer, respectively. A thermodilution system was also used to properly sample and dilute the mainstream aerosol. Different types of electronic cigarettes, liquid flavors, liquid nicotine contents, as well as different puffing times were tested. Conventional tobacco cigarettes were also investigated. The total particle number concentration peak (for 2-s puff), averaged across the different electronic cigarette types and liquids, was measured equal to 4.39 ± 0.42 × 10(9) part. cm(-3), then comparable to the conventional cigarette one (3.14 ± 0.61 × 10(9) part. cm(-3)). Puffing times and nicotine contents were found to influence the particle concentration, whereas no significant differences were recognized in terms of flavors and types of cigarettes used. Particle number distribution modes of the electronic cigarette-generated aerosol were in the 120-165 nm range, then similar to the conventional cigarette one.Tags: (Cigarette mainstream aerosol; Conventional tobacco cigarettes; E-cigarettes; Indoor air quality; Particle concentration)
2017Insights Journals(p. 12/19/201)LINKBasic Science Air, Soil and Water Research
2015Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking US middle and high school electronic cigarette users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011-2013Nicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/2/2015)LINKINTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. METHODS: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6-12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. RESULTS: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. CONCLUSION: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes.
2018IQOSTM vs. e-Cigarette vs. Tobacco Cigarette: A Direct Comparison of Short-Term Effects after Overnight-AbstinenceInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 12/18/2018)LINKIntroduction: Research from Philip Morris International's science division on its Heat-not-Burn product IQOSTM focused on its chemical, toxicological, clinical, and behavioral aspects. Independent research on the experiences and behavioral aspects of using IQOSTM, and how it compares to e-cigarettes, is largely lacking. The current randomized, cross-over behavioral trial tried to bridge the latter gaps. Methods: Participants (n = 30) came to the lab on three consecutive days after being overnight smoking abstinent. During each session, participants used one of three products (cigarette, e-cigarette, or IQOSTM) for five minutes. Exhaled CO (eCO) measurements and questionnaires were repeatedly administered throughout the session. Results: Smoking a cigarette for five minutes resulted in a significant increase of eCO, whereas using an IQOSTM resulted in a small but reliable increase (0.3 ppm). Vaping did not affect eCO. Cigarette craving reduced significantly after product use, with the decline being stronger for smoking than for e-cigarettes or IQOSTM. Withdrawal symptoms declined immediately after smoking or using IQOSTM, and with some delay after vaping. IQOSTM scored higher in terms of subjective reward/satisfaction and was slightly preferred to the e-cigarette. Discussion: Short-term use of IQOSTM has a minimal impact on eCO, is equally effective in reducing cigarette craving and withdrawal symptoms as an e-cigarette, and is slightly preferred.Tags: (electronic cigarettes; heat-not-burn tobacco products; tobacco harm reduction)
2015Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-upAddiction (p. 1/7/2015)LINKAIMS: To use a unique longitudinal data set to assess the association between e-cigarette use while smoking with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and substantial reduction, taking into account frequency of use and key potential confounders. DESIGN: Web-based survey, baseline November/December 2012, 1-year follow-up in December 2013. SETTING: Great Britain. PARTICIPANTS: National general population sample of 4064 adult smokers, with 1759 (43%) followed-up. MEASUREMENTS: Main outcome measures were cessation attempt, cessation and substantial reduction (≥50% from baseline to follow-up) of cigarettes per day (CPD). In logistic regression models, cessation attempt in the last year (analysis n = 1473) and smoking status (n = 1656) at follow-up were regressed on to baseline e-cigarette use (none, non-daily, daily) while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics, dependence and nicotine replacement (NRT) use. Substantial reduction (n = 1042) was regressed on to follow-up e-cigarette use while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics and dependence and follow-up NRT use. FINDINGS: Compared with non-use, daily e-cigarette use at baseline was associated with increased cessation attempts [odds ratio (OR) = 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-3.58, P = 0.006], but not with cessation at follow-up (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.28-1.37, P = 0.24). Non-daily use was not associated with cessation attempts or cessation. Daily e-cigarette use at follow-up was associated with increased odds of substantial reduction (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.14-5.45, P = 0.02), non-daily use was not. CONCLUSIONS: Daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking appears to be associated with subsequent increases in rates of attempting to stop smoking and reducing smoking, but not with smoking cessation. Non-daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking does not appear to be associated with cessation attempts, cessation or reduced smoking.Tags: (Electronic cigarettes; electronic nicotine delivery systems; harm reduction; quit attempts; smoking cessation; tobacco)
2015Is there evidence for potential harm of electronic cigarette use in pregnancy?Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology (p. 1/3/2015)LINKBACKGROUND: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and other nicotine containing products is increasing among women of reproductive age. The short- and long-term effects of these products on both mother and fetus are unknown. METHODS: Because e-cigarettes are nicotine delivery systems, we sought to conduct a comprehensive review of the effects of nicotine on the fetus. RESULTS: In utero nicotine exposure in animal models is associated with adverse effects for the offspring lung, cardiovascular system and brain. In the lung, this included reduced surface area, weight, and volume, as well as emphysema-like lesions. In adulthood, exposed offspring demonstrate elevated blood pressure and increased perivascular adipose tissue. In the brain, exposure alters offspring serotonergic, dopaminergic, and norepinephrine networks, which in turn are associated with behavioral and cognitive impairments. We also review current data on the lack of efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnant women, and highlight different nicotine containing products such as snuff, snus, and hookah. CONCLUSION: We conclude that no amount of nicotine is known to be safe during pregnancy, and studies specifically addressing this risk are crucial and an imminent public health issue.Tags: (electronic cigarettes; nicotine; pregnancy)
2015Is Vaping Worse Than Smoking?- (p. 1/27/2015)LINKYou wouldn’t discover the correct answer from reading the latest study on e-cigarettes.
2019Just a Spoonful of Sugar Helps the Messages Go Down: Using Stories and Vicarious Self-Affirmation to Reduce e-Cigarette UseHealth communication (p. 1/3/2019)LINKWhile prior research has demonstrated the benefits of self-affirming individuals prior to exposing them to potentially threatening health messages, the current study assesses the feasibility of inducing self-affirmation vicariously through the success of a character in a narrative. In Study 1, college-age participants who regularly use e-cigarettes (N = 225) were randomly assigned to read one of two versions of a story depicting a college student of their own gender. The versions were identical except in the vicarious self-affirmation (VSA) condition, the main character achieves success (i.e., honored with a prestigious award) before being confronted by a friend about the dangers associated with their e-cigarette use; whereas in the vicarious control condition, the achievement is mentioned after the risk information. Results of the posttest and 10-day follow-up demonstrated that VSA reduced messages derogation, while increasing self-appraisal and perceived risk. The effect of VSA on e-cigarette outcomes was moderated by frequency of use, with heavier users benefiting the most. Study 2 (N = 152) confirmed that traditional value affirmation works with our stimuli on a comparable population.
2014Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettesTobacco control (p. 1/3/2014)LINKSIGNIFICANCE: Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, are devices designed to imitate regular cigarettes and deliver nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco. They are purported to deliver nicotine without other toxicants and to be a safer alternative to regular cigarettes. However, little toxicity testing has been performed to evaluate the chemical nature of vapour generated from e-cigarettes. The aim of this study was to screen e-cigarette vapours for content of four groups of potentially toxic and carcinogenic compounds: carbonyls, volatile organic compounds, nitrosamines and heavy metals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vapours were generated from 12 brands of e-cigarettes and the reference product, the medicinal nicotine inhaler, in controlled conditions using a modified smoking machine. The selected toxic compounds were extracted from vapours into a solid or liquid phase and analysed with chromatographic and spectroscopy methods. RESULTS: We found that the e-cigarette vapours contained some toxic substances. The levels of the toxicants were 9-450 times lower than in cigarette smoke and were, in many cases, comparable with trace amounts found in the reference product. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with the idea that substituting tobacco cigarettes with e-cigarettes may substantially reduce exposure to selected tobacco-specific toxicants. E-cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy among smokers unwilling to quit, warrants further study. (To view this abstract in Polish and German, please see the supplementary files online.).Tags: (Carcinogens; Electronic nicotine delivery devices; Harm Reduction; Toxicology)
2010Long-term effects of inhaled nicotineLife sciences (p. 1996)LINKTobacco smoking has been reported to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, particularly of the lungs. In spite of extensive research on the health effects of tobacco smoking, the substances in tobacco smoke exerting these negative health effects are not completely known. Nicotine is the substance giving the subjective pleasure of smoking as well as inducing addiction. For the first time we report the effect on the rat of long-term (two years) inhalation of nicotine. The rats breathed in a chamber with nicotine at a concentration giving twice the plasma concentration found in heavy smokers. Nicotine was given for 20 h a day, five days a week during a two-year period. We could not find any increase in mortality, in atherosclerosis or frequency of tumors in these rats compared with controls. Particularly, there was no microscopic or macroscopic lung tumors nor any increase in pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. Throughout the study, however, the body weight of the nicotine exposed rats was reduced as compared with controls. In conclusion, our study does not indicate any harmful effect of nicotine when given in its pure form by inhalation.
2013Looks like smoking, is it smoking?: children's perceptions of cigarette-like nicotine delivery systems, smoking and cessationHarm reduction journal (p. 11/18/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: Alternative cigarette-like nicotine delivery systems have been met with diverse opinions. One concern has been for the effect on children. We investigate whether children can differentiate tobacco cigarette smoking from use of a nicotine inhaler and electronic cigarette. Their opinions on these devices was also of interest. METHODS: Two structured focus groups and twelve individual interviews were conducted with twenty Māori and Pacific children (6-10 years old) in low socioeconomic areas in Auckland, New Zealand. Children viewed short video clips on an iPad that demonstrated an actor smoking a tobacco cigarette, sucking a lollipop or using an electronic cigarette or a nicotine inhaler. RESULTS: Children did not recognise the inhaler or electronic cigarette. Some children did however notice anomalies in the 'smoking' behaviour. Once told about the products the children were mostly positive about the potential of the inhaler and electronic cigarette to assist smokers to quit. Negative perceptions were expressed, including views about the ill health effects associated with continued nicotine intake and the smoker's inability to quit. CONCLUSIONS: In a context unfamiliar with electronic cigarettes or nicotine inhalers, such as New Zealand, children may misperceive use of these products as smoking. Once these products are more common and the purpose of them is known, seeing people use them should normalise quitting behaviour, something the children were very supportive of.
2015Louise Ross: why shouldnt people with poor mental health have the same opportunities as everyone else?(p. 4/20/201)LINKA new guest blog from Louise Ross, Leicester Stop Smoking Service Manager, showing the way with humanity, empathy and humility (previous posts: Let there be light! and Who’s health are we tal…
2013Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosolPloS one (p. 3/20/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (EC) deliver aerosol by heating fluid containing nicotine. Cartomizer EC combine the fluid chamber and heating element in a single unit. Because EC do not burn tobacco, they may be safer than conventional cigarettes. Their use is rapidly increasing worldwide with little prior testing of their aerosol. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that EC aerosol contains metals derived from various components in EC. METHODS: Cartomizer contents and aerosols were analyzed using light and electron microscopy, cytotoxicity testing, x-ray microanalysis, particle counting, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. RESULTS: The filament, a nickel-chromium wire, was coupled to a thicker copper wire coated with silver. The silver coating was sometimes missing. Four tin solder joints attached the wires to each other and coupled the copper/silver wire to the air tube and mouthpiece. All cartomizers had evidence of use before packaging (burn spots on the fibers and electrophoretic movement of fluid in the fibers). Fibers in two cartomizers had green deposits that contained copper. Centrifugation of the fibers produced large pellets containing tin. Tin particles and tin whiskers were identified in cartridge fluid and outer fibers. Cartomizer fluid with tin particles was cytotoxic in assays using human pulmonary fibroblasts. The aerosol contained particles >1 µm comprised of tin, silver, iron, nickel, aluminum, and silicate and nanoparticles (<100 nm) of tin, chromium and nickel. The concentrations of nine of eleven elements in EC aerosol were higher than or equal to the corresponding concentrations in conventional cigarette smoke. Many of the elements identified in EC aerosol are known to cause respiratory distress and disease. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of metal and silicate particles in cartomizer aerosol demonstrates the need for improved quality control in EC design and manufacture and studies on how EC aerosol impacts the health of users and bystanders.
2018Metal Concentrations in e-Cigarette Liquid and Aerosol Samples: The Contribution of Metallic CoilsEnvironmental health perspectives (p. 2/21/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) generate an aerosol by heating a solution (e-liquid) with a metallic coil. Whether metals are transferred from the coil to the aerosol is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to investigate the transfer of metals from the heating coil to the e-liquid in the e-cigarette tank and the generated aerosol. METHODS: We sampled 56 e-cigarette devices from daily e-cigarette users and obtained samples from the refilling dispenser, aerosol, and remaining e-liquid in the tank. Aerosol liquid was collected via deposition of aerosol droplets in a series of conical pipette tips. Metals were reported as mass fractions (μg/kg) in liquids and converted to mass concentrations (mg/m3) for aerosols. RESULTS: Median metal concentrations (μg/kg) were higher in samples from the aerosol and tank vs. the dispenser (all p<0.001): 16.3 and 31.2 vs. 10.9 for Al; 8.38 and 55.4 vs. <0.5 for Cr; 68.4 and 233 vs. 2.03 for Ni; 14.8 and 40.2 vs. 0.476 for Pb; and 515 and 426 vs. 13.1 for Zn. Mn, Fe, Cu, Sb, and Sn were detectable in most samples. Cd was detected in 0.0, 30.4, and 55.1% of the dispenser, aerosol, and tank samples respectively. Arsenic was detected in 10.7% of dispenser samples (median 26.7μg/kg) and these concentrations were similar in aerosol and tank samples. Aerosol mass concentrations (mg/m3) for the detected metals spanned several orders of magnitude and exceeded current health-based limits in close to 50% or more of the samples for Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that e-cigarettes are a potential source of exposure to toxic metals (Cr, Ni, and Pb), and to metals that are toxic when inhaled (Mn and Zn). Markedly higher concentrations in the aerosol and tank samples versus the dispenser demonstrate that coil contact induced e-liquid contamination. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2175.
2013Mining data on usage of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) from YouTube videosTobacco control (p. 1/3/2013)LINKOBJECTIVE: The objective was to analyse and compare puff and exhalation duration for individuals using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and conventional cigarettes in YouTube videos. METHODS: Video data from YouTube videos were analysed to quantify puff duration and exhalation duration during use of conventional tobacco-containing cigarettes and ENDS. For ENDS, comparisons were also made between 'advertisers' and 'non-advertisers', genders, brands of ENDS, and models of ENDS within one brand. RESULTS: Puff duration (mean =2.4 s) for conventional smokers in YouTube videos (N=9) agreed well with prior publications. Puff duration was significantly longer for ENDS users (mean =4.3 s) (N = 64) than for conventional cigarette users, and puff duration varied significantly among ENDS brands. For ENDS users, puff duration and exhalation duration were not significantly affected by 'advertiser' status, gender or variation in models within a brand. Men outnumbered women by about 5:1, and most users were between 19 and 35 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: YouTube videos provide a valuable resource for studying ENDS usage. Longer puff duration may help ENDS users compensate for the apparently poor delivery of nicotine from ENDS. As with conventional cigarette smoking, ENDS users showed a large variation in puff duration (range =1.9-8.3 s). ENDS puff duration should be considered when designing laboratory and clinical trials and in developing a standard protocol for evaluating ENDS performance.
2015More on hidden formaldehyde in e-cigarette aerosolsThe New England journal of medicine (p. 4/16/2015)LINK
2014News media representations of electronic cigarettes: an analysis of newspaper coverage in the UK and ScotlandTobacco control (p. 1/11/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) have recently been attracting interest for their potential as a less harmful alternative to smoking, their rising popularity and the regulatory issues they raise. The news media can play an important role in shaping public perceptions of new technologies. It is, therefore, important to understand the ways the news media present ENDS. This paper examines how ENDS are represented in the UK and in the Scottish press. METHODS: Twelve national UK and Scottish newspapers and the three most popular online news sources were searched between 2007 and 2012. A thematic analysis was conducted to explore how the meanings, uses and users of ENDS are presented, and whether and how this has changed. RESULTS: Newspaper coverage of ENDS increased substantially over this period. Five key themes emerged from the analysis: getting around smokefree legislation; risk and uncertainty; healthier choice; celebrity use; price. CONCLUSIONS: Drawing on the diffusion of innovations theory, we suggest that newspaper constructions of ENDS provide readers with important information about what ENDS are for, how they work, and their relative advantages. These themes, and dominance of more positive meanings, raise a number of issues for tobacco control, including concerns around celebrity use and promotion; the impact of increasing ENDS use on social norms around smoking; their potential to undermine smokefree legislation; and their promotion as effective cessation aids.Tags: (Advertising and Promotion; Electronic nicotine delivery devices; Media)
2015Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between experienced consumers (vapers) and naïve users (smokers)Scientific reports (p. 6/17/2015)LINKElectronic cigarettes (ECs) are nicotine delivery devices that are proposed as tobacco harm reduction products to smokers. Nicotine delivery from ECs is potentially important in their efficacy as smoking substitutes. Herein, nicotine delivery from using a new-generation EC device (variable-wattage, set at 9 W) was evaluated, comparing experienced (vapers) with naïve users (smokers). Twenty-four vapers and 23 smokers participated to the study. They were asked to obtain 10 puffs in 5 minutes and then use the EC ad lib for 60 more minutes (total duration of use: 65 minutes). An 18 mg/mL nicotine-containing liquid was used. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, 5-minutes and every 15 minutes thereafter, while number of puffs and average puff duration were recorded. Although at baseline both groups had similar plasma nicotine levels, smokers consistently exhibited lower levels at all time-periods; at 5-minutes the levels were lower by 46%, while during the subsequent period they were lower by 43% (at 65-minutes) to 54% (at 20-minutes). Both groups took similar number of puffs, but smokers had average puff duration of 2.3 s compared to 3.5 s in vapers. Even in vapers, plasma nicotine levels at 5 minutes were lower than those observed after smoking 1 tobacco cigarette.
2014Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between first and new-generation devicesScientific reports (p. 2/26/2014)LINKA wide range of electronic cigarette (EC) devices, from small cigarette-like (first-generation) to new-generation high-capacity batteries with electronic circuits that provide high energy to a refillable atomizer, are available for smokers to substitute smoking. Nicotine delivery to the bloodstream is important in determining the addictiveness of ECs, but also their efficacy as smoking substitutes. In this study, plasma nicotine levels were measured in experienced users using a first- vs. new-generation EC device for 1 hour with an 18 mg/ml nicotine-containing liquid. Plasma nicotine levels were higher by 35-72% when using the new- compared to the first-generation device. Compared to smoking one tobacco cigarette, the EC devices and liquid used in this study delivered one-third to one-fourth the amount of nicotine after 5 minutes of use. New-generation EC devices were more efficient in nicotine delivery, but still delivered nicotine much slower compared to tobacco cigarettes. The use of 18 mg/ml nicotine-concentration liquid probably compromises ECs' effectiveness as smoking substitutes; this study supports the need for higher levels of nicotine-containing liquids (approximately 50 mg/ml) in order to deliver nicotine more effectively and approach the nicotine-delivery profile of tobacco cigarettes.
2015Nicotine and toxicant yield ratings of electronic cigarette brands in New ZealandThe New Zealand medical journal (p. 3/27/2015)LINKAIMS: To analyse electronic cigarette (EC) brands available in New Zealand for nicotine and toxicant yield ratings. METHOD: Fourteen EC brands were analysed before and after nicotine exhaustion for nicotine and nine for major toxicants. Concentration of nicotine and aldehydes in vapour was measured and compared with the nicotine and aldehydes in the smoke of a Marlboro cigarette. RESULTS: ECs labelled as high strength (16-18+ mg nicotine) contained 5-46 mg nicotine. Nicotine EC brands yielded 19-93 mcg nicotine per puff compared to 147 mcg per puff for Marlboro cigarettes, and emitted 200 times less toxic aldehydes (acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acrolein) than Marlboro cigarette smoke. Compared with the first generation EC, study ECs emitted 73% less aldehydes. Diethylene and monoethylene glycol were not detected in vapour. CONCLUSION: ECs available in New Zealand in 2013 exposed users to higher levels of nicotine than in older brands but lower than cigarettes, and to far lower levels of toxicants than cigarettes and earlier ECs, indicating potential as safer substitutes for tobacco.
2014Nicotine blood levels and short-term smoking reduction with an electronic nicotine delivery systemAmerican journal of health behavior (p. 1/3/2014)LINKOBJECTIVES: To evaluate nicotine delivery from the NJOY® King Bold Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS) and its short-term potential for smoking reduction or cessation. METHODS: One week of ad libitum use was followed by measurements of plasma nicotine, heart rate, and craving and withdrawal after 12 hours of nicotine abstinence in 25 adult smokers not interested in quitting. RESULTS: After 5 minutes of use, blood nicotine levels increased by a mean of 3.5 ng/mL (p < .001), heart rate increased, and craving was reduced by 55%. Cigarettes per day were reduced by 39% during the test week, and perceptions of use for reduction or cessation were positive. CONCLUSIONS: The NJOY® King Bold ENDS delivers nicotine and led to short-term smoking reduction.
2016Nicotine concentration of e-cigarettes used by adolescentsDrug and alcohol dependence (p. 10/1/2016)LINKOBJECTIVE: E-cigarettes are popular among youth, but little is known about the nicotine concentrations of e-liquids used by adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In Spring, 2014, we conducted cross-sectional surveys in four Connecticut high schools and two middle schools. Among past-30-day e-cigarette users (n=513, 45% female, mean age 15.9 [SD=1.4]), we examined what nicotine concentration adolescents typically used in their e-cigarettes (range 0-30mg/mL and I don't know"). We first examined whether age"
2012Nicotine control: E-cigarettes, smoking and addictionThe International journal on drug policy (p. 1/5/2012)LINKBACKGROUND: Over the past year or so, electronic cigarettes, more commonly known as 'e-cigarettes', have achieved widespread visibility and growing popularity. These products, which deliver nicotine via an inhaled mist, have caused no small amount of controversy in public health circles, and their rise has been accompanied by energetic debate about their potential harms and benefits. METHODS: Interspersed with an analysis of current media coverage on e-cigarettes and the response of mainstream tobacco control and public health to these devices, this article examines the emergence of nicotine as both as an 'addiction' and a treatment for addiction. RESULTS: We argue that by delivering nicotine in way that resembles the visual spectacle and bodily pleasures of smoking, but without the harms of combustible tobacco, e-cigarettes highlight the complex status of nicotine as both a poison and remedy in contemporary public health and tobacco control. CONCLUSION: In consequence, e-cigarettes jeopardize the carefully drawn distinctions between 'good' and 'bad' forms of nicotine.
2017Nicotine delivery to users from cigarettes and from different types of e-cigarettesPsychopharmacology (p. 1/3/2017)LINKBACKGROUND: Delivering nicotine in the way smokers seek is likely to be the key factor in e-cigarette (EC) success in replacing cigarettes. We examined to what degree different types of EC mimic nicotine intake from cigarettes. METHODS: Twelve participants ('dual users' of EC and cigarettes) used their own brand cigarette and nine different EC brands. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 2-min intervals for 10 min and again at 30 min. RESULTS: Eleven smokers provided usable data. None of the EC matched cigarettes in nicotine delivery (C max = 17.9 ng/ml, T max = 4 min and AUC0->30 = 315 ng/ml/min). The EC with 48 mg/ml nicotine generated the closest PK profile (C max = 13.6 ng/ml, T max = 4 min, AUC0->30 = 245 ng/ml/min), followed by a third generation EC using 20 mg/ml nicotine (C max = 11.9 ng/ml, T max = 6 min, AUC0->30 = 232 ng/ml/min), followed by the tank system using 20 mg/ml nicotine (C max = 9.9 ng/ml, T max = 6 min, AUC0->30 = 201 ng/ml/min). Cig-a-like PK values were similar, ranging from C max 7.5 to 9.7 ng/ml, T max 4-6 min, and AUC0->30 144 to 173 ng/ml/min. Moderate differences in e-liquid nicotine concentrations had little effect on nicotine delivery, e.g. the EC with 24 mg/ml cartridge had the same PK profile as ECs with 16 mg/ml cartridges. Using similar strength e-liquid, the tank EC provided significantly more nicotine than cig-a-like ECs. CONCLUSIONS: EC brands we tested do not deliver nicotine as efficiently as cigarettes, but newer EC products deliver nicotine more efficiently than cig-a-like brands. Moderate variations in nicotine content of e-liquid have little effect on nicotine delivery. Smokers who are finding cig-a-like EC unsatisfactory should be advised to try more advanced systems.Tags: (E-cigarettes; Nicotine delivery; Smoking; Vaping)
2013Nicotine derived from the electronic cigarette improves time-based prospective memory in abstinent smokersPsychopharmacology (p. 1/6/2013)LINKRATIONALE: It is well established that nicotine improves, and deprivation impairs, cognitive performance and mood in smokers. Prospective memory (PM), remembering to execute a delayed intention at a given time point, is under-explored in smokers. Whilst a handful of studies have shown improved PM with nicotine, the effects of nicotine delivered via the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study explores whether, by comparison with placebo, nicotine delivered via the e-cigarette can improve PM, tobacco withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in abstinent smokers. METHODS: Twenty smokers, abstinent for 8-10 h, each completed two experimental sessions under nicotine (18 mg) and placebo (0 mg) e-cigarette conditions. Participants completed a single-item desire-to-smoke scale and the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale. PM was measured using the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, the nicotine e-cigarette reduced the desire to smoke and tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and improved time-based but not event-based PM. There was a moderate, marginally significant negative correlation between PM performance during abstinence and nicotine dependence. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that nicotine derived via e-cigarette can improve PM in abstinent smokers, suggesting efficient nicotine delivery. The finding that the effect of nicotine was restricted to time-based rather than event-based PM is consistent with the view that nicotine acts to improve performance on strategic (effortful) rather than automatic processing. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that the e-cigarette can replace some of the effects of nicotine derived from tobacco smoking, thus highlighting its potential for smoking cessation.
2015Nicotine intake from electronic cigarettes on initial use and after 4 weeks of regular useNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/2/2015)LINKINTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (EC) have the potential to generate a substantial public health benefit if there is a switch from smoking to EC use on a population scale. The nicotine delivery from EC is likely to play a major role in their attractiveness to smokers. We assessed nicotine delivery from a first-generation EC and the effect of experience with its use on nicotine intake. METHODS: Six smokers provided pharmacokinetic (PK) data after their first use of EC and again following 4 weeks of use. RESULTS: The peak nicotine levels were achieved within 5 min of starting the EC use, which suggests that EC may provide nicotine via pulmonary absorption. There were large individual differences in nicotine intake. Compared with the PK profile when using EC for the first time, 4 weeks of practice generated a 24% increase in the peak plasma concentrations (from 4.6 to 5.7 ng/ml; nonsignificant) and a 79% increase in overall nicotine intake (AUC(0 → inf) increased from 115 to 206 ng*min/ml; p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: First-generation EC provide faster nicotine absorption than nicotine replacement products, but to compete successfully with conventional cigarettes, EC may need to provide higher doses of nicotine. Nicotine intake from EC can increase with practice, but further studies are needed to confirm this effect.
2015Nicotine levels and presence of selected tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco flavoured electronic cigarette refill liquidsInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 3/24/2015)LINKBACKGROUND: Some electronic cigarette (EC) liquids of tobacco flavour contain extracts of cured tobacco leaves produced by a process of solvent extraction and steeping. These are commonly called Natural Extract of Tobacco (NET) liquids. The purpose of the study was to evaluate nicotine levels and the presence of tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco-flavoured conventional and NET liquids. METHODS: Twenty-one samples (10 conventional and 11 NET liquids) were obtained from the US and Greek market. Nicotine levels were measured and compared with labelled values. The levels of tobacco-derived chemicals were compared with literature data on tobacco products. RESULTS: Twelve samples had nicotine levels within 10% of the labelled value. Inconsistency ranged from -21% to 22.1%, with no difference observed between conventional and NET liquids. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) were present in all samples at ng/mL levels. Nitrates were present almost exclusively in NET liquids. Acetaldehyde was present predominantly in conventional liquids while formaldehyde was detected in almost all EC liquids at trace levels. Phenols were present in trace amounts, mostly in NET liquids. Total TSNAs and nitrate, which are derived from the tobacco plant, were present at levels 200-300 times lower in 1 mL of NET liquids compared to 1 gram of tobacco products. CONCLUSIONS: NET liquids contained higher levels of phenols and nitrates, but lower levels of acetaldehyde compared to conventional EC liquids. The lower levels of tobacco-derived toxins found in NET liquids compared to tobacco products indicate that the extraction process used to make these products did not transfer a significant amount of toxins to the NET. Overall, all EC liquids contained far lower (by 2-3 orders of magnitude) levels of the tobacco-derived toxins compared to tobacco products.
2013Nicotine levels in electronic cigarettesNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/1/2013)LINKINTRODUCTION: The electronic cigarette (EC) is a plastic device that imitates conventional cigarettes and was developed to deliver nicotine in a toxin-free vapor. Nicotine in a solution is heated and vaporized when a person puffs through the device and is inhaled as a vapor into the mouth. The EC is a new product on the market and little is known about its safety and nicotine delivery efficacy. The aim of the study was to analyze nicotine levels in vapor generated from various EC brands and models. The study was designed to assess efficacy and consistency of various ECs in converting nicotine to vapor and to analyze dynamics of nicotine vaporization. METHODS: Sixteen ECs were selected based on their popularity in the Polish, U.K. and U.S. markets. Vapors were generated using an automatic smoking machine modified to simulate puffing conditions of real EC users. Nicotine was absorbed in a set of washing bottles with methanol and analyzed with gas chromatography. RESULTS: The total level of nicotine in vapor generated by 20 series of 15 puffs varied from 0.5 to 15.4 mg. Most of the analyzed ECs effectively delivered nicotine during the first 150-180 puffs. On an average, 50%-60% of nicotine from a cartridge was vaporized. CONCLUSIONS: ECs generate vapor that contains nicotine, but EC brands and models differ in their efficacy and consistency of nicotine vaporization. In ECs, which vaporize nicotine effectively, the amount inhaled from 15 puffs is lower compared with smoking a conventional cigarette.
2020Nicotine patches used in combination with e-cigarettes (with and without nicotine) for smoking cessation: a pragmatic, randomised trialThe Lancet. Respiratory medicine (p. 1/1/2020)LINKBACKGROUND: Combination nicotine replacement therapy shows additive cessation benefits. We aimed to find out the effectiveness of combining nicotine patches with an e-cigarette (with and without nicotine) on six-month smoking abstinence. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, three-arm, parallel-group trial in New Zealand in adult smokers who were e-cigarette naive and motivated to quit smoking. Participants were recruited from the general population using national media advertising. Participants were randomly assigned (1:4:4), with the use of stratified block randomisation, to receive 14 weeks (2 weeks before the agreed quit date) of 21 mg, 24h nicotine patches, patches plus an 18 mg/L nicotine e-cigarette, or patches plus a nicotine-free e-cigarette. We advised participants to use one patch daily, with e-cigarette use as and when necessary or desired. Participants and researchers were masked to e-liquid nicotine content. We offered 6 weeks of telephone-delivered behavioural support. The primary outcome was exhaled carbon monoxide (CO)-verified continuous smoking abstinence 6 months after the agreed quit date. Primary analysis was by intention to treat, with sensitivity analysis by per protocol, treatment adherence, varying CO cutoffs, and complete case analysis. This paper presents the main analyses and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02521662. FINDINGS: Between March 17, 2016 and Nov 30, 2017, 1124 people were assigned to nicotine patches (patches only group, n=125), patches plus a nicotine e-cigarette (patches plus nicotine e-cigarette group, n=500), or patches plus a nicotine-free e-cigarette (patches plus nicotine-free e-cigarette group, n=499). 62 (50%) of 125 participants in the patches only group withdrew or were lost to follow-up by 6 months compared with 161 (32%) of 500 in the patches plus nicotine e-cigarette group and 162 (33%) of 499 in the patches plus nicotine-free e-cigarette group. 35 (7%) participants in the patches plus nicotine e-cigarette group had CO-verified continuous abstinence at 6 months compared with 20 (4%) in the patches plus nicotine-free e-cigarette group (risk difference [RD] 2·99 [95% CI 0·17-5·81]), and three (2%) people in the patches only group (RD 4·60 [1·11-8·09]). 18 serious adverse events occurred in 16 people in the patches plus nicotine e-cigarette group compared with 27 events in 22 people in the patches plus nicotine-free e-cigarette group and four events in three people in the patches only group. In the patches plus nicotine e-cigarette group, two life-threatening serious adverse events were reported (two separate heart attacks in the one participant). In the patches plus nicotine-free e-cigarette group, one death occurred (accidental drug overdose) and one life-threatening serious adverse event (heart attack). No significant between-group differences were noted for serious adverse events, and none were treatment-related. INTERPRETATION: Combining reduced-harm nicotine products, such as nicotine patches with a nicotine e-cigarette, can lead to a modest improvement in smoking cessation over and above that obtained from using patches plus a nicotine-free e-cigarette (or patches alone), with no indication of any serious harm in the short-term. Future e-cigarette trials should focus on their use alone or in combination with usual smoking cessation support, given issues with differential loss to follow-up and withdrawal if a usual care group is used as a comparator. FUNDING: Health Research Council of New Zealand.
2014Nicotine Without Death(p. 11/29/201)LINKThe growing pains in the e-cigarette industry suggest a mix of cautious optimism and deep frustration among executives.
2016Nicotine without smoke: Tobacco harm reduction- (p. 4/28/2016)LINKThis report provides an update on the use of harm reduction in tobacco smoking, particularly in relation to e-cigarettes.
2017Nicotine, aerosol particles, carbonyls and volatile organic compounds in tobacco- and menthol-flavored e-cigarettesEnvironmental health (p. 4/27/2017)LINKBACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the content of electronic cigarette (EC) emissions for five groups of potentially toxic compounds that are known to be present in tobacco smoke: nicotine, particles, carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and trace elements by flavor and puffing time. METHODS: We used ECs containing a common nicotine strength (1.8%) and the most popular flavors, tobacco and menthol. An automatic multiple smoking machine was used to generate EC aerosols under controlled conditions. Using a dilution chamber, we targeted nicotine concentrations similar to that of exposure in a general indoor environment. The selected toxic compounds were extracted from EC aerosols into a solid or liquid phase and analyzed with chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. RESULTS: We found that EC aerosols contained toxic compounds including nicotine, fine and nanoparticles, carbonyls, and some toxic VOCs such as benzene and toluene. Higher mass and number concentrations of aerosol particles were generated from tobacco-flavored ECs than from menthol-flavored ECs. CONCLUSION: We found that diluted machine-generated EC aerosols contain some pollutants. These findings are limited by the small number of ECs tested and the conditions of testing. More comprehensive research on EC exposure extending to more brands and flavor compounds is warranted.Tags: (Carbonyls; Nicotine; Particles; VOCs in e-cigarette emissions)
2017Nicotine, Carcinogen, and Toxin Exposure in Long-Term E-Cigarette and Nicotine Replacement Therapy UsersAnnals of internal medicine (p. 3/21/2017)LINKBackground: Given the rapid increase in the popularity of e-cigarettes and the paucity of associated longitudinal health-related data, the need to assess the potential risks of long-term use is essential. Objective: To compare exposure to nicotine, tobacco-related carcinogens, and toxins among smokers of combustible cigarettes only, former smokers with long-term e-cigarette use only, former smokers with long-term nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use only, long-term dual users of both combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and long-term users of both combustible cigarettes and NRT. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: United Kingdom. Participants: The following 5 groups were purposively recruited: combustible cigarette?only users, former smokers with long-term (≥6 months) e-cigarette?only or NRT-only use, and long-term dual combustible cigarette?e-cigarette or combustible cigarette?NRT users (n = 36 to 37 per group; total n = 181). Measurements: Sociodemographic and smoking characteristics were assessed. Participants provided urine and saliva samples and were analyzed for biomarkers of nicotine, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results: After confounders were controlled for, no clear between-group differences in salivary or urinary biomarkers of nicotine intake were found. The e-cigarette?only and NRT-only users had significantly lower metabolite levels for TSNAs (including the carcinogenic metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol [NNAL]) and VOCs (including metabolites of the toxins acrolein; acrylamide; acrylonitrile; 1,3-butadiene; and ethylene oxide) than combustible cigarette?only, dual combustible cigarette?e-cigarette, or dual combustible cigarette?NRT users. The e-cigarette?only users had significantly lower NNAL levels than all other groups. Combustible cigarette?only, dual combustible cigarette?NRT, and dual combustible cigarette?e-cigarette users had largely similar levels of TSNA and VOC metabolites. Limitation: Cross-sectional design with self-selected sample. Conclusion: Former smokers with long-term e-cigarette?only or NRT-only use may obtain roughly similar levels of nicotine compared with smokers of combustible cigarettes only, but results varied. Long-term NRT-only and e-cigarette?only use, but not dual use of NRTs or e-cigarettes with combustible cigarettes, is associated with substantially reduced levels of measured carcinogens and toxins relative to smoking only combustible cigarettes. Primary Funding Source: Cancer Research UK.
2015Nicotine: Carcinogenicity and Effects on Response to Cancer Treatment - A ReviewFrontiers in oncology (p. 8/31/2015)LINKTobacco use is considered the single most important man-made cause of cancer that can be avoided. The evidence that nicotine is involved in cancer development is reviewed and discussed in this paper. Both tobacco smoke and tobacco products for oral use contain a number of carcinogenic substances, such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNA), which undoubtedly contribute to tobacco related cancer. Recent studies have shown that nicotine can affect several important steps in the development of cancer, and suggest that it may cause aggravation and recurrence of the disease. TSNA may be formed from nicotine in the body. The role of nicotine as the major addictive component of tobacco products may have distracted our attention from toxicological effects on cell growth, angiogenesis, and tumor malignancy. Effects on cancer disease are important aspects in the evaluation of possible long-term effects from sources of nicotine, such as e-cigarettes and products for nicotine replacement therapy, which both have a potential for life-long use.Tags: (cancer; carcinogen; e-cigarettes; nicotine; tobacco)
2018No adverse health impacts from long term vaping -- Study(p. 1/17/201)LINKA new peer-reviewed clinical trial to be published in the February edition of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology shows that regular use of e-cigarettes does not have any negative health impact on smokers.
2012Non-cigarette tobacco products: what have we learnt and where are we headed?Tobacco control (p. 1/3/2012)LINKA wide variety of non-cigarette forms of tobacco and nicotine exist, and their use varies regionally and globally. Smoked forms of tobacco such as cigars, bidis, kreteks and waterpipes have high popularity and are often perceived erroneously as less hazardous than cigarettes, when in fact their health burden is similar. Smokeless tobacco products vary widely around the world in form and the health hazards they present, with some clearly toxic forms (eg, in South Asia) and some forms with far fewer hazards (eg, in Sweden). Nicotine delivery systems not directly reliant on tobacco are also emerging (eg, electronic nicotine delivery systems). The presence of such products presents challenges and opportunities for public health. Future regulatory actions such as expansion of smoke-free environments, product health warnings and taxation may serve to increase or decrease the use of non-cigarette forms of tobacco. These regulations may also bring about changes in non-cigarette tobacco products themselves that could impact public health by affecting attractiveness and/or toxicity.
2020Optimizing Warnings on E-Cigarette AdvertisementsNicotine & tobacco research (p. 4/21/2020)LINKINTRODUCTION: We examined the effect of visual optimizations on warning text recall. METHODS: We used Amazon's Mechanical Turk to recruit 1854 young adult (18-34 years) electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users or susceptible nonusers. We conducted a between-subjects 3 × 2 × 2 experiment to examine the influence of color (black text on white background [BW] vs. black on yellow [BY] vs. yellow on black [YB]), shape (rectangle vs. novel), and signal word (presence vs. absence of the word warning"). We randomized participants to view one of 12 warnings on a fictional e-cigarette advertisement. We coded open-ended recall responses into three categories: (1) recalled nothing"
2014Over 2 million Britons now regularly use electronic cigarettes(p. 4/28/201)LINKprint Monday 28 April 2014 Figures released by health charity ASH [1] on the day the ASA’s consultation on the advertising of electronic cigarettes closes [2] reveal that usage of electronic cigarettes among adults in Britain has tripled over the past two years from an estimated 700,000 users in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2014. …
2017P5166 Electronic cigarette smoking increases of arterial stifness and oxidative stress to a lesser extent than a single normal cigarette: an acute and chronic studyEuropean heart journal (p. 8/29/2017)LINKBackground: Electronic cigarette is proposed as a bridge to smoking cessation. In this study we examined its effects on aortic elasticity, exhaled CO concentratTags: (oxidative stress; smoking; cigarettes; electronic cigarettes)
2019Parental Dual Use of e-Cigarettes and Traditional CigarettesAcademic pediatrics (p. 1/9/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: E-cigarettes are growing in popularity. Dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes is an increasingly common practice, but little is known about patterns of dual use in parents. We sought to describe smoking-related behaviors among dual-users. METHODS: Parent exit surveys were conducted following their child's visit in 5 control pediatric practices in 5 states participating in the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure trial. We examined factors associated with dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes versus cigarette-only smokers, assessed by self-report. RESULTS: Of 1382 smokers or recent quitters screened after their child's visit between April and October 2017, 943 (68%) completed the survey. Of these, 727 parents reported current use of cigarettes; of those, 81 (11.1%) also reported e-cigarette use, meeting the definition of dual use. Compared with cigarette-only smokers, dual users were more likely to have a child younger than 1 year old, planned to quit in the next 6 months, and had tried to quit in the past (had a quit attempt in the past 3 months, called the quitline, or used medicine to quit in the past 2 years; P < .05 for each). CONCLUSIONS: Parents who use both e-cigarettes and cigarettes may have greater rates of contemplating smoking cessation than parents who only smoke cigarettes. These parents may be using e-cigarettes for harm reduction or as a step toward cessation. Identification of these parents may provide an opportunity to deliver effective treatment, including nicotine-replacement therapies that do not expose infants and children to e-cigarette aerosol.Tags: (dual use; parental e-cigarette use; smoking cessation; tobacco control)
2019Parental Smoking and E-cigarette Use in Homes and CarsPediatrics (p. 1/4/2019)LINKOBJECTIVES: To determine how smoke-free and vape-free home and car policies differ for parents who are dual users of cigarettes and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), who only smoke cigarettes, or who only use e-cigarettes. To identify factors associated with not having smoke-free or vape-free policies and how often smoke-free advice is offered at pediatric offices. METHODS: Secondary analysis of 2017 parental interview data collected after their children's visit in 5 control practices participating in the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure trial. RESULTS: Most dual users had smoke-free home policies, yet fewer had a vape-free home policies (63.8% vs 26.3%; P 10 years old. Smoke-free home and car advice was infrequently delivered. CONCLUSIONS: Parents may perceive e-cigarette aerosol as safe for children. Dual users more often had smoke-free policies than vape-free policies for the home. Dual users were less likely than cigarette-only smokers to report various child-protective measures inside homes and cars. These findings reveal important opportunities for intervention with parents about smoking and vaping in homes and cars.
2015Parental Use of Electronic CigarettesAcademic pediatrics (p. 1/11/2015)LINKOBJECTIVE: To describe parental use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) to better understand the safety risks posed to children. METHODS: Between June 24 and November 6, 2014, parents completed a self-administered paper survey during an office visit to 15 pediatric practices in a Midwestern practice-based research network. Attitudes towards and use of e-cigs are reported for those aware of e-cigs before the survey. RESULTS: Ninety-five percent (628 of 658) of respondents were aware of e-cigs. Of these, 21.0% (130 of 622) had tried e-cigs at least once, and 12.3% (77) reported e-cig use by ≥1 person in their household (4.0% exclusive e-cig use, 8.3% dual use with regular cigarettes). An additional 17.3% (109) reported regular cigarette use. Most respondents from e-cig-using homes did not think e-cigs were addictive (36.9% minimally or not addictive, 25.0% did not know). While 73.7% believed that e-liquid was very dangerous for children if they ingested it, only 31.2% believed skin contact to be very dangerous. In 36.1% of e-cig-using homes, neither childproof caps nor locks were used to prevent children's access to e-liquid. Only 15.3% reported their child's pediatrician was aware of e-cig use in the home. CONCLUSIONS: E-cig use occurred in 1 in 8 homes, often concurrently with regular cigarettes. Many parents who used e-cigs were unaware of the potential health and safety hazards, including nicotine poisoning for children, and many did not store e-liquid safely. Pediatricians could provide education about e-cig associated safety hazards but are unaware of e-cig use in their patients' homes.Tags: (electronic cigarettes; patient safety; practice-based research network)
2015Particulate Matter from Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes: a Systematic Review and Observational StudyCurrent environmental health reports (p. 1/12/2015)LINKOBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to review the literature on the composition of aerosols from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) originated by human vaping and to describe the emission of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM(2.5)) from conventional and e-cigarettes at home in real-use conditions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and Web of Science. We measured PM(2.5) in four different homes: one from a conventional cigarette smoker, one from an e-cigarette user, and two from non-smokers. RESULTS: The review identified eight previous investigations on the composition of aerosols from e-cigarettes originated by human vaping and indicated that emissions from e-cigarettes can contain potential toxic compounds such as nicotine, carbonyls, metals, and organic volatile compounds, besides particulate matter. In the observational study, the PM(2.5) median concentration was 9.88 μg/m³ in the e-cigarette user home and 9.53 and 9.36 μg/m³ in the smoke-free homes, with PM(2.5) peaks concurrent with the e-cigarette puffs. CONCLUSION: Both the literature review and the observational study indicate that e-cigarettes used under real-conditions emit toxicants, including PM(2.5). Further research is needed to characterize the chemicals emitted by different types of e-cigarettes and to assess secondhand exposure to e-cigarette aerosol using biological markers.Tags: (E-cigarette; Electronic cigarette; Electronic nicotine delivery system; Particulate matter; Tobacco smoke pollution)
2014Particulate metals and organic compounds from electronic and tobacco-containing cigarettes: comparison of emission rates and secondhand exposureEnvironmental science. Processes & impacts (p. 2014)LINKIn recent years, electronic cigarettes have gained increasing popularity as alternatives to normal (tobacco-containing) cigarettes. In the present study, particles generated by e-cigarettes and normal cigarettes have been analyzed and the degree of exposure to different chemical agents and their emission rates were quantified. Despite the 10-fold decrease in the total exposure to particulate elements in e-cigarettes compared to normal cigarettes, specific metals (e.g. Ni and Ag) still displayed a higher emission rate from e-cigarettes. Further analysis indicated that the contribution of e-liquid to the emission of these metals is rather minimal, implying that they likely originate from other components of the e-cigarette device or other indoor sources. Organic species had lower emission rates during e-cigarette consumption compared to normal cigarettes. Of particular note was the non-detectable emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from e-cigarettes, while substantial emission of these species was observed from normal cigarettes. Overall, with the exception of Ni, Zn, and Ag, the consumption of e-cigarettes resulted in a remarkable decrease in secondhand exposure to all metals and organic compounds. Implementing quality control protocols on the manufacture of e-cigarettes would further minimize the emission of metals from these devices and improve their safety and associated health effects.
2017Paternal nicotine exposure alters hepatic xenobiotic metabolism in offspringeLife (p. 2/14/2017)LINKPaternal environmental conditions can influence phenotypes in future generations, but it is unclear whether offspring phenotypes represent specific responses to particular aspects of the paternal exposure history, or a generic response to paternal 'quality of life'. Here, we establish a paternal effect model based on nicotine exposure in mice, enabling pharmacological interrogation of the specificity of the offspring response. Paternal exposure to nicotine prior to reproduction induced a broad protective response to multiple xenobiotics in male offspring. This effect manifested as increased survival following injection of toxic levels of either nicotine or cocaine, accompanied by hepatic upregulation of xenobiotic processing genes, and enhanced drug clearance. Surprisingly, this protective effect could also be induced by a nicotinic receptor antagonist, suggesting that xenobiotic exposure, rather than nicotinic receptor signaling, is responsible for programming offspring drug resistance. Thus, paternal drug exposure induces a protective phenotype in offspring by enhancing metabolic tolerance to xenobiotics.Tags: (chromosomes; epigenetics; genes; mouse; paternal effects; substance abuse)
2016Patterns of Electronic Cigarette Use Among Adults in the United StatesNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/5/2016)LINKINTRODUCTION: Amid increasing rates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in the United States, there is an urgent need to monitor patterns of use at the population level in order to inform practice, policy and regulation. This article examines how patterns of e-cigarette use among adults differ between users and nonusers of cigarettes using the most current national data. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey. We estimated prevalence of ever, current, and daily e-cigarette use and examined how use patterns differed by demographic subgroups and measures of cigarette smoking status that accounted for the recent availability of e-cigarettes in the US marketplace. RESULTS: Current e-cigarette use is extremely low among never cigarette smokers (0.4%) and former smokers who quit cigarettes 4 or more years ago (0.8%). Although e-cigarette experimentation is most common among current cigarette smokers and young adults, daily use is highest among former smokers who quit in the past year (13.0%) and older adults. Compared to daily cigarette smokers, recently quit smokers were more than four times as likely to be daily users of e-cigarettes (AOR: 4.33 [95% CI: 3.08-6.09]). CONCLUSIONS: Extremely low e-cigarette use among never-smokers and longer term former smokers suggest that e-cigarettes neither promote widespread initiation nor relapse among adults. Recognition of the heterogeneity of smokers, including the time since quitting, is critical to draw accurate conclusions about patterns of e-cigarette use at the population level and its potential for public health benefit or harm. IMPLICATIONS: Data from 2014 National Health Interview Survey indicate that e-cigarettes have not been attracting adult non-smokers or promoting relapse in longer term former smokers. Moreover, the data are suggestive that some recent quitters may have done so with the assistance of e-cigarettes. Creating measures of smoking status that treat former smokers as a homogenous group is insufficient to assess the epidemiology of e-cigarette use and the potential impact on public health.
2013Patterns of electronic cigarette use and user beliefs about their safety and benefits: an internet surveyDrug and alcohol review (p. 1/3/2013)LINKINTRODUCTION AND AIMS: As the popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) increases, it is becoming important to find out more about the characteristics of e-cigarette users, why and how they use the product and whether e-cigarettes are used exclusively or in combination with conventional cigarettes. The objective of this study was to investigate patterns and effects of e-cigarette use and user beliefs about e-cigarette safety and benefits. DESIGN AND METHODS: E-cigarette users in Poland were recruited online and asked to participate in a web-based survey. The participants provided information on their smoking history, patterns of e-cigarette use, beliefs and attitudes regarding the product and information on concurrent use of conventional cigarettes. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 179 e-cigarette users. Almost all participants used e-cigarettes daily. E-cigarettes were primarily used to quit smoking or to reduce the harm associated with smoking (both 41%), and were successful in helping the surveyed users to achieve these goals with 66% not smoking conventional cigarettes at all and 25% smoking under five cigarettes a day. Most participants (82%) did not think that e-cigarettes were completely safe, but thought that they were less dangerous than conventional cigarettes. Sixty percent believed that e-cigarettes were addictive, but less so than conventional cigarettes. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The participants primarily used e-cigarettes as a stop-smoking aid or as an alternative to conventional cigarettes, and the majority reported that they successfully stopped smoking. More data on e-cigarette safety and its efficacy in harm-reduction and smoking cessation are needed.
2015Peering Through the Haze(p. 4/18/201)LINKAn annual study of young people’s smoking habits gives us reasons for optimism, not alarm.
2014Peering through the mist: systematic review of what the chemistry of contaminants in electronic cigarettes tells us about health risksBMC public health (p. 1/9/2014)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are generally recognized as a safer alternative to combusted tobacco products, but there are conflicting claims about the degree to which these products warrant concern for the health of the vapers (e-cigarette users). This paper reviews available data on chemistry of aerosols and liquids of electronic cigarettes and compares modeled exposure of vapers with occupational safety standards. METHODS: Both peer-reviewed and grey" literature were accessed and more than 9000 observations of highly variable quality were extracted. Comparisons to the most universally recognized workplace exposure standards
2013Perceived efficacy of e-cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy among successful e-cigarette users: a qualitative approachAddiction science & clinical practice (p. 3/5/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: Nicotine is widely recognized as an addictive psychoactive drug. Since most smokers are bio-behaviorally addicted, quitting can be very difficult and is often accompanied by withdrawal symptoms. Research indicates that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can double quit rates. However, the success rate for quitting remains low. E-cigarettes (electronic cigarettes) are battery-powered nicotine delivery devices used to inhale doses of vaporized nicotine from a handheld device similar in shape to a cigarette without the harmful chemicals present in tobacco products. Anecdotal evidence strongly suggests that e-cigarettes may be effective in helping smokers quit and preventing relapse, but there have been few published qualitative studies, especially among successful e-cigarette users, to support this evidence. METHODS: Qualitative design using focus groups (N = 11); 9 men and 2 women. Focus groups were conducted by posing open-ended questions relating to the use of e-cigarettes, comparison of effectiveness between NRTs and e-cigarettes, barriers to quitting, and reasons for choosing e-cigarettes over other methods. RESULTS: Five themes emerged that describe users' perceptions of why e-cigarettes are efficacious in quitting smoking: 1) bio-behavioral feedback, 2) social benefits, 3) hobby elements, 4) personal identity, and 5) distinction between smoking cessation and nicotine cessation. Additionally, subjects reported their experiences with NRTs compared with e-cigarettes, citing negative side effects of NRTs and their ineffectiveness at preventing relapse. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest tobacco control practitioners must pay increased attention to the importance of the behavioral and social components of smoking addiction. By addressing these components in addition to nicotine dependence, e-cigarettes appear to help some tobacco smokers transition to a less harmful replacement tool, thereby maintaining cigarette abstinence.
2018Perceptions and Reasons Regarding E-Cigarette Use among Users and Non-Users: A Narrative Literature ReviewInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 6/6/2018)LINKThis paper aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the attractiveness of e-cigarettes for several different groups. For this purpose, perceptions of and reasons for e-cigarette use were systematically reviewed as reported by e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, dual users, and non-users, among both adults and youth. MEDLINE® and Scopus were used to search for relevant articles, and references of included studies were also investigated. Two reviewers screened all titles and abstracts independently, blinded to authors and journal titles (Cohen’s Kappa = 0.83), resulting in 72 eligible articles. Risk perceptions, perceived benefits, and reasons for e-cigarette use were categorized in themes and sub-themes. Risk perceptions included harmfulness in general, and specific health risks. Perceived benefits included improved taste and smell, and safety for bystanders. Reasons for use included (health) benefits, curiosity, smoking cessation, and friends using e-cigarettes. The findings highlight that there is a variety of perceptions and reasons mentioned by adult and youth e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, dual users, and non-users. As such, this overview provides valuable information for scientists, public health professionals, behavior change experts, and regulators to improve future research, risk communication, and possibilities to effectively regulate e-cigarettes.Tags: (adults; dual use; electronic cigarette; perceptions; reasons; youth)
2014Physicians' attitudes and use of e-cigarettes as cessation devices, North Carolina, 2013PloS one (p. 7/29/2014)LINKINTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are not currently approved or recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or various medical organizations; yet, they appear to play a substantial role in tobacco users' cessation attempts. This study reports on a physician survey that measured beliefs, attitudes, and behavior related to e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. To our knowledge this is the first study to measure attitudes toward e-cigarettes among physicians treating adult smokers. METHODS: Using a direct marketing company, a random sample of 787 North Carolina physicians were contacted in 2013 through email, with 413 opening the email and 128 responding (response rate = 31%). Physicians' attitudes towards e-cigarettes were measured through a series of close-ended questions. Recommending e-cigarettes to patients served as the outcome variable for a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Two thirds (67%) of the surveyed physicians indicated e-cigarettes are a helpful aid for smoking cessation, and 35% recommended them to their patients. Physicians were more likely to recommend e-cigarettes when their patients asked about them or when the physician believed e-cigarettes were safer than smoking standard cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: Many North Carolina physicians are having conversations about e-cigarettes with their patients, and some are recommending them. Future FDA regulation of e-cigarettes may help provide evidence-based guidance to physicians about e-cigarettes and will help ensure that patients receive evidence-based recommendations about the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes in tobacco cessation.
2014Pilot investigation of changes in readiness and confidence to quit smoking after E-cigarette experimentation and 1 week of useNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/1/2014)LINKINTRODUCTION: This study examined changes in smokers' readiness and confidence to quit smoking, smoking behavior, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and tobacco product preference following electronic cigarette (EC) experimentation and 1 week of ad libitum use. METHODS: Current cigarette smokers, with no prior use of ECs and uninterested in quitting, completed 3 study phases: baseline assessment (N = 20), experimentation (N = 19), and ad libitum use (N = 16). Baseline assessment consisted of completion of assessment measures and exhaled carbon monoxide measurements. Experimentation phases consisted of four, 75-min sessions in which participants completed assessment measures and sampled 3 EC brands and their own brand of cigarette (OBC). Ad libitum use included participants selecting and being provided their preferred EC brand from the experimentation phase to be used as you want" for 1 week. Outcome measures included readiness and confidence to quit smoking nicotine withdrawal symptoms
2018Predicting Short-Term Uptake of Electronic Cigarettes: Effects of Nicotine, Subjective Effects, and Simulated DemandNicotine & tobacco research (p. 9/4/2018)LINKIntroduction: E-cigarettes have potential to support tobacco cessation or reduction, but how nicotine content affects smokers' subjective perceptions and use of e-cigarettes, rather than tobacco, is unclear. Method: Thirty-five adult daily smokers who had not previously tried e-cigarettes were recruited from two cities in New Zealand in 2016-2017. Smokers were given four e-cigarette cartridges (0, 6, 12, and 18 mg nicotine) in a randomized, blinded order over four 2-week periods. Daily cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use was monitored using ecological momentary analysis and participants completed the modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire after each 2-week period. Results: Mean cigarettes per day decreased by 37% (9.69 to 6.09) when e-cigarettes were available relative to baseline (p = .008). Nicotine-containing cartridges (>0 mg) were associated with greater use (p = .023) and craving reduction (p = .026) than 0 mg. Alleviation of withdrawal symptoms (p = .048) and taste and enjoyment factors (p = .039) predicted e-cigarette use. Conclusion: Availability of e-cigarettes reduced cigarette smoking behavior regardless of nicotine content, and e-cigarette use was greater with nicotine-containing cartridges. First-time users' e-cigarette use can be predicted using subjective ratings and more research is required to clarify the effect of nicotine content on subjective perceptions and use. Implications: For low-moderate dependence smokers, availability of e-cigarettes may reduce cigarette smoking behavior regardless of nicotine content, but the availability of nicotine-containing cartridges may promote greater e-cigarette use. First response to trialing e-cigarettes is an important factor in determining subsequent experimental and possibly longer-term use.
2018Predicting smoking abstinence with biological and self-report measures of adherence to varenicline: Impact on pharmacogenetic trial outcomesDrug and alcohol dependence (p. 9/1/2018)LINKINTRODUCTION: Adherence to pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence, such as varenicline, is necessary for effective treatment. The relationship between varenicline adherence, determined by commonly used indirect (i.e., self-reported pill counts) and infrequently used direct (i.e., varenicline levels) methods, and abstinence outcomes have not been previously examined, nor has their impact on the outcomes of a genetically randomized clinical trial been assessed. METHODS: At Week 1 following target quit date, self-reported pill count and salivary varenicline levels were obtained from participants (N = 376) in a smoking cessation clinical trial (NCT01314001). Point-prevalence abstinence was biochemically-verified by salivary cotinine at Week 1 and by exhaled carbon monoxide at Week 1, end-of-treatment, 6 and 12 months following treatment. Blood nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) was obtained at baseline. RESULTS: Adherent individuals based on varenicline levels were significantly more likely to be abstinent than non-adherent individuals at Week 1 (odds ratios [ORs] 1.92-3.16, p's≤0.006), end-of-treatment (OR = 2.53, p = .004), and six months following treatment (OR = 2.30, p = .03). In contrast, pill counts did not consistently predict abstinence. Including direct measures of adherence enhanced the association between rate of nicotine metabolism (NMR) and end-of-treatment abstinence; normal metabolizers (NMR ≥ 0.31) were significantly more likely than slow metabolizers (NMR < 0.31) to be abstinent at end-of-treatment (OR = 2.00, p = .005). CONCLUSION: Adherence based on salivary varenicline, rather than on pill counts, is predictive of Week 1 abstinence, irrespective of the biomarker of abstinence assessed, and of long-term abstinence. Direct measures of adherence enhance the ability to assess the impact of a biomarker or genetic marker on abstinence outcomes.Tags: (Compliance; Smoking cessation; Treatment adherence; Treatment outcome; Varenicline)
2014Prevalence and characteristics of e-cigarette users in Great Britain: Findings from a general population survey of smokersAddictive behaviors (p. 1/6/2014)LINKBACKGROUND: E-cigarettes may be effective smoking cessation aids and their use by smokers has been growing rapidly. It is important to observe and assess natural patterns in the use of e-cigarettes whilst experimental data accumulates. This paper reports the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage, including brand choice, and characterises the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use, among the general population of smokers and recent ex-smokers. METHODS: Data were obtained from 3538 current and 579 recent ex-smokers in a cross-sectional online survey of a national sample of smokers in Great Britain in November and December 2012. Differences between current and recent ex-smokers in the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage were examined and the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use of e-cigarettes was assessed in a series of simple and multiple logistic regressions. RESULTS: Ninety-three percent of current and recent ex-smokers (n=3841) were aware of e-cigarettes. Approximately a fifth (n=884) were currently using e-cigarettes, whilst just over a third (n=1507) had ever used them. Sixty-seven percent of the sample (n=2758) believed e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes; however, almost a quarter (n=994) remained unsure. Among both current and recent ex-smokers, the most popular reasons for using were health, cutting down and quitting (each >80%) and 38% used the brand 'E-lites'. Among current smokers who were aware of but had never used e-cigarettes, approximately half (n=1040) were interested in using them in the future. Among current smokers, their use was associated with higher socio-economic status (OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.25-1.75), smoking more cigarettes (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03) and having a past-year quit attempt (OR=2.82, 95%CI=2.38-3.34). CONCLUSIONS: There is a near universal awareness of e-cigarettes and their use appears to be common among smokers in Great Britain although a quarter of all smokers are unsure as to whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. E-lites - a brand that delivers a low dose of nicotine - is the most popular. E-cigarette users appear to have higher socio-economic status, to smoke more cigarettes per day and to have attempted to quit in the past year.Tags: (Cessation; E-cigarettes; Electronic cigarettes; Quitting; Smoking)
2016Promote e-cigarettes widely as substitute for smoking says new RCP report(p. 4/28/201)LINKA new report released today from the Royal College of Physicians, ‘Nicotine without smoke: tobacco harm reduction’ concludes that e-cigarettes are likely to be beneficial to UK public health.
2010Propylene glycol in e cigarettes might keep us healthy, says researchers(p. 11/4/200)LINKAccording to the Centers for Disease Control, during 2000-2004, An estimated 443 000 persons in the United States died prematurely each year from smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke."
2016Protocol proposal for, and evaluation of, consistency in nicotine delivery from the liquid to the aerosol of electronic cigarettes atomizers: regulatory implicationsAddiction (p. 1/6/2016)LINKAIMS: To propose a protocol and evaluate the consistency in nicotine delivery to the aerosol of different types of electronic cigarette (EC) atomizers, as required by regulatory authorities. DESIGN: Three cartomizer and four tank-type atomizer products were tested (three samples per product). The aerosol from three 20-puff sessions from each sample was collected using a smoke machine. Three cartridges from a nicotine inhaler and three tobacco cigarettes were also tested. SETTING: Analytical laboratory in Greece. MEASUREMENTS: Aerosol nicotine levels were measured. Relative standard deviation (RSD, i.e. coefficient of variation) was calculated separately for each cartomizer and replacement atomizer head sample (intrasample RSD) and between different samples (intersample RSD). The percentage difference from the mean, which is used to assess the quality of medicinal nebulizers, was also calculated. FINDINGS: The aerosol nicotine levels were 1.01-10.61 mg/20 puffs for ECs, 0.12-0.18 mg/20 puffs for the nicotine inhaler and 1.76-2.20 mg/cigarette for the tobacco cigarettes. The intrasample RSDs were 3.7-12.5% for ECs and 14.3% for the nicotine inhaler and 11.1% for the tobacco cigarettes. The intersample RSDs were higher in cartomizers (range: 6.9-37.8%) compared with tank systems (range: 6.4-9.3%). All tank-type atomizers and one cartomizer were within 75-125% of the mean, as dictated for medicinal nebulizers. CONCLUSIONS: Electronic cigarettes that use tank-type atomizers appear to deliver nicotine in more consistent quantities (within the acceptable limits for medicinal nebulizers and similar to the nicotine inhaler) than electronic cigarettes that use cartomizers. The protocol for testing nicotine delivery consistency described in this paper could be used effectively for regulatory purposes.Tags: (Aerosol; electronic cigarette; nicotine; regulation)
2015Public health experts talking sense about e-cigarettes and vaping(p. 3/6/201)LINKPublic Health England recently published some excellent video commentaries on vaping and e-cigarettes by genuinely thoughtful and engaged public health experts – I have collected them here. …
2019Pulmonary and other health effects of electronic cigarette use among adult smokers participating in a randomized controlled smoking reduction trialAddictive behaviors (p. 1/4/2019)LINKBACKGROUND: There is limited evidence about the effects of dual electronic cigarette (e-cig) and combustible cigarette use on lung health or other health outcomes. Studies that have evaluated these outcomes have not included estimates of e-cig or cigarette exposure in the analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data analyzed were from 263 smokers participating in a randomized controlled trial designed to encourage participants to reduce their combustible cigarette use by substituting with an e-cig or a non-electronic cigarette substitute (cig-sub). t-tests were used to evaluate changes from baseline at 1 month and 3 months in lung function, blood pressure, pulse, exhaled carbon monoxide, and weight. Linear mixed effects models were used to test associations between health outcomes and study product group, including exposure to the study products (e-cig and cig-sub times used and days used in the past 7 days) and cigarettes per day (CPD). RESULTS: There were few significant differences between the groups for lung function indices at any time point in the unadjusted analyses. There were significant reductions in diastolic blood pressure and pulse at 1 month in the unadjusted analyses for those in the e-cig group compared to the cig-sub group. CPD decreased significantly more for the e-cig group than for the cig-sub group at both time points. There were no significant associations between any measured health outcomes and group in the linear mixed effects models. CONCLUSION: E-cig use did not contribute to significant changes in health outcome markers as compared with use of a non-electronic cig-sub.Tags: (Electronic cigarettes; Health effects; Lung function; Smoking reduction)
2013Qualitative and quantitative compositions of fluids for electronic cigarettesPharmaceutical Chemistry Journal (p. 2/1/2013)LINKThe composition of fluids used in “electronic cigarettes” was studied without preliminary preparation procedures using one- and two-dimensional homo- and heteronuclear 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy in addition to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). It was shown that the main components of the mixtures were non-tobacco products.
2015Quit and smoking reduction rates in vape shop consumers: a prospective 12-month surveyInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 3/24/2015)LINKAIMS: Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. DESIGN: Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. SETTINGS: Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy) that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. PARTICIPANTS: 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old) making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. MEASUREMENTS: Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours) were also noted. FINDINGS: Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice) to more advanced devices (MODs) was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month) as well as a trend in decreasing thee-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month). CONCLUSIONS: We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates.
2017Quit Methods Used by US Adult Cigarette Smokers, 2014-2016Preventing chronic disease (p. 4/13/2017)LINKTo quantify the prevalence of 10 quit methods commonly used by adult cigarette smokers, we used data from a nationally representative longitudinal (2014-2016) online survey of US adult cigarette smokers (n = 15,943). Overall, 74.7% of adult current cigarette smokers used multiple quit methods during their most recent quit attempt. Giving up cigarettes all at once (65.3%) and reducing the number of cigarettes smoked (62.0%) were the most prevalent methods. Substituting some cigarettes with e-cigarettes was used by a greater percentage of smokers than the nicotine patch, nicotine gum, or other cessation aids approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Further research into the effectiveness of e-cigarettes as a cessation aid is warranted.
2019Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, multicentre trial comparing electronic cigarettes with nicotine to varenicline and to electronic cigarettes without nicotine: the ECSMOKE trial protocolBMJ open (p. 5/24/2019)LINKINTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (EC) mainly with nicotine content are widely used worldwide. Although the number of publications about its use is increasing exponentially, evidence-based, unbiased, conclusive, head-to-head comparisons about its efficacy and safety as an aid for smoking cessation are lacking. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Design: randomised, placebo and reference treatment-controlled, multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group trial. Participants: smokers smoking at least 10 cigarettes/day in the past year and motivated to quit, aged 18-70 years. Interventions: (A) EC without nicotine (ECwoN) plus placebo tablets of varenicline administered by oral route: placebo condition, (B) EC with nicotine (ECwN) plus placebo tablets of varenicline: ECwN condition. Voltage regulated EC will be used with liquid containing 12 mg/mL of nicotine for ad libitum use. Flavour: blond tobacco. (C) Reference: ECwoN plus 0.5 mg varenicline tablets: varenicline condition. Varenicline administered according to the marketing authorisationauthorisation. Treatment duration: 1 week+3 months. Primary outcome: continuous smoking abstinence rate (CAR) (abstinence from conventional/combustible cigarettes) during the last 4 weeks (weeks 9-12) of the treatment period defined as self-report of no smoking during the previous 2 weeks and expired air carbon monoxide ≤8 at visit 4 at week 10 after target quit date (TQD), that is, 11 weeks after treatment initiation AND at visit 5, week 12 after TQD, that is, 13 weeks after treatment initiation. Secondary outcomes: safety profile; point prevalence abstinence rate; CAR confirmed by urinary anabasine concentration; changes in cigarettes/day consumption; craving for tobacco and withdrawal symptoms with respect of baseline. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ethics committee approval was obtained on 17 April 2018. All data collected about the study participants will be anonymised. Investigators will communicate trial results to participants, health authorities, healthcare professionals, the public and other relevant groups without any publication restrictions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03630614; Pre-results.Tags: (electronic cigarettes; randomised, controlled, double dummy trial; smoking cessation; varenicline)
2019RCP advice on vaping following reported cases of deaths and lung disease in the US(p. 10/25/201)LINKFollowing reported deaths and disease in the US linked to vaping, there has been considerable public concern about the safety of vaping products and whether or not it is safe to continue vaping in the UK. RCP restates its position on vaping following these reports.
2016Real-Time Measurement of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Size Distribution and Metals Content AnalysisNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/9/2016)LINKINTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing worldwide and is highest among both daily and nondaily smokers. E-cigarettes are perceived as a healthier alternative to combustible tobacco products, but their health risk factors have not yet been established, and one of them is lack of data on aerosol size generated by e-cigarettes. METHODS: We applied a real-time, high-resolution aerosol differential mobility spectrometer to monitor the evolution of aerosol size and concentration during puff development. Particles generated by e-cigarettes were immediately delivered for analysis with minimal dilution and therefore with minimal sample distortion, which is critically important given the highly dynamic aerosol/vapor mixture inherent to e-cigarette emissions. RESULTS: E-cigarette aerosols normally exhibit a bimodal particle size distribution: nanoparticles (11-25nm count median diameter) and submicron particles (96-175nm count median diameter). Each mode has comparable number concentrations (10(7)-10(8) particles/cm(3)). Dry puff" tests conducted with no e-cigarette liquid (e-liquid) present in the e-cigarette tank demonstrated that under these conditions only nanoparticles were generated. Analysis of the bulk aerosol collected on the filter showed that e-cigarette emissions contained a variety of metals. CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette aerosol size distribution is different from that of combustible tobacco smoke. E-cigarettes generate high concentrations of nanoparticles and their chemical content requires further investigation. Despite the small mass of nanoparticles" their toxicological impact could be significant. Toxic chemicals that are attached to the small nanoparticles may have greater adverse health effects than when attached to larger submicron particles. IMPLICATIONS: The e-cigarette aerosol size distribution is different from that of combustible tobacco smoke and typically exhibits a bimodal behavior with comparable number concentrations of nanoparticles and submicron particles. While vaping the e-cigarette
2014Real-world effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation: a cross-sectional population studyAddiction (p. 1/9/2014)LINKBACKGROUND AND AIMS: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly increasing in popularity. Two randomized controlled trials have suggested that e-cigarettes can aid smoking cessation, but there are many factors that could influence their real-world effectiveness. This study aimed to assess, using an established methodology, the effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation compared with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) bought over-the-counter and with unaided quitting in the general population. DESIGN AND SETTING: A large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of the English population. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 5863 adults who had smoked within the previous 12 months and made at least one quit attempt during that period with either an e-cigarette only (n = 464), NRT bought over-the-counter only (n = 1922) or no aid in their most recent quit attempt (n = 3477). MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was self-reported abstinence up to the time of the survey, adjusted for key potential confounders including nicotine dependence. FINDINGS: E-cigarette users were more likely to report abstinence than either those who used NRT bought over-the-counter [odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.70-2.93, 20.0 versus 10.1%] or no aid (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.08-1.76, 20.0 versus 15.4%). The adjusted odds of non-smoking in users of e-cigarettes were 1.63 (95% CI = 1.17-2.27) times higher compared with users of NRT bought over-the-counter and 1.61 (95% CI = 1.19-2.18) times higher compared with those using no aid. CONCLUSIONS: Among smokers who have attempted to stop without professional support, those who use e-cigarettes are more likely to report continued abstinence than those who used a licensed NRT product bought over-the-counter or no aid to cessation. This difference persists after adjusting for a range of smoker characteristics such as nicotine dependence.Tags: (Cessation; NRT; cross-sectional population survey; e-cigarettes; electronic cigarettes; nicotine replacement therapy; quitting; smoking)
2018Real-world' compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposureAddiction (p. 1/10/2018)LINKAIMS: To compare the effects of (i) high versus low nicotine concentration e-liquid, (ii) fixed versus adjustable power and (iii) the interaction between the two on: (a) vaping behaviour, (b) subjective effects, (c) nicotine intake and (d) exposure to acrolein and formaldehyde in e-cigarette users vaping in their everyday setting. DESIGN: Counterbalanced, repeated measures with four conditions: (i) low nicotine (6 mg/ml)/fixed power; (ii) low nicotine/adjustable power; (iii) high nicotine (18 mg/ml)/fixed power; and (iv) high nicotine/adjustable power. SETTING: London and the South East, England. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty experienced e-cigarette users (recruited between September 2016 and February 2017) vaped ad libitum using an eVic Supreme™ with a 'Nautilus Aspire' tank over 4 weeks (1 week per condition). MEASUREMENTS: Puffing patterns [daily puff number (PN), puff duration (PD), interpuff interval (IPI)], ml of e-liquid consumed, changes to power (where permitted) and subjective effects (urge to vape, nicotine withdrawal symptoms) were measured in each condition. Nicotine intake was measured via salivary cotinine. 3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), a metabolite of the toxicant acrolein, and formate, a metabolite of the carcinogen formaldehyde, were measured in urine. FINDINGS: There was a significant nicotine concentration × power interaction for PD (P < 0.01). PD was longer with low nicotine/fixed power compared with (i) high nicotine/fixed power (P < 0.001) and (ii) low nicotine/adjustable power (P < 0.01). PN and liquid consumed were higher in the low versus high nicotine condition (main effect of nicotine, P < 0.05). Urge to vape and withdrawal symptoms were lower, and nicotine intake was higher, in the high nicotine condition (main effects of nicotine: P < 0.01). While acrolein levels did not differ, there was a significant nicotine × power interaction for formaldehyde (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Use of a lower nicotine concentration e-liquid may be associated with compensatory behaviour (e.g. higher number and duration of puffs) and increases in negative affect, urge to vape and formaldehyde exposure.Tags: (Acrolein; E-cigarette; compensatory behaviour; formaldehyde; nicotine; puffing patterns; subjective effects)
2013Reasonable people saying sensible things about low-risk alternatives to smoking (update)(p. 7/23/201)LINKUpdated 24 July 2013. Smokeless tobacco products, e-cigarettes and novel nicotine products have astonishing potential to reduce the expected one billion premature deaths from tobacco in the 21st Ce…Tags: (natural language processing; smoking; social media; twitter messaging)
2020Reduction in Exposure to Selected Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents Approaching Those Observed Upon Smoking Abstinence in Smokers Switching to the Menthol Tobacco Heating System 2.2 for 3 Months (Part 1)Nicotine & tobacco research (p. 4/17/2020)LINKINTRODUCTION: The Tobacco Heating System (THS) is a heat-not-burn" tobacco product designed to generate significantly lower levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) and present lower risk of harm than cigarettes. This study assessed the exposure reduction to selected HPHCs in smokers switching to menthol Tobacco Heating System (mTHS) 2.2 compared with smokers continuing smoking menthol cigarettes (mCCs) and smoking abstinence (SA) for 5 days in a confined setting" followed by an 86-day ambulatory period. METHODS: A total of 160 healthy adult US smokers participated in this randomized
2016Rep. Duncan Hunter vapes during congressional hearing - CNNPolitics(p. 2/11/201)LINKRep. Duncan Hunter wasn't blowing smoke" when he made his case against an amendment to ban vaping on planes."""
2014Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettesTobacco control (p. 1/5/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. RESULTS: Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are 'eco-friendly' or 'green', despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern.Tags: (disposal; electronic cigarettes; environment; indoor air quality; manufacture)
2015Response to Shihadeh et al. (2015): E-cigarettes generate high levels of aldehydes only in 'dry puff' conditionsAddiction (p. 1/11/2015)LINKTags: (Aerosol; aldehydes; dry puff; electronic cigarette; formaldehyde; overheating)
2015Risks of attempting to regulate nicotine flux in electronic cigarettesNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/2/2015)LINK
2011Safety Assessment of Electronic Cigarettes in SmokersSeikatsu eisei (p. 2011)LINK
2014Safety evaluation and risk assessment of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: a systematic reviewTherapeutic advances in drug safety (p. 1/4/2014)LINKElectronic cigarettes are a recent development in tobacco harm reduction. They are marketed as less harmful alternatives to smoking. Awareness and use of these devices has grown exponentially in recent years, with millions of people currently using them. This systematic review appraises existing laboratory and clinical research on the potential risks from electronic cigarette use, compared with the well-established devastating effects of smoking tobacco cigarettes. Currently available evidence indicates that electronic cigarettes are by far a less harmful alternative to smoking and significant health benefits are expected in smokers who switch from tobacco to electronic cigarettes. Research will help make electronic cigarettes more effective as smoking substitutes and will better define and further reduce residual risks from use to as low as possible, by establishing appropriate quality control and standards.Tags: (e-liquid; e-vapor; electronic cigarettes; harm reduction; nicotine; safety; tobacco)
2018Second Generation Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Vape Pen Exposure Generalizes as a Smoking CueNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/5/2018)LINKIntroduction: Second generation electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also known as e-cigarettes, vaporizers or vape pens) are designed for a customized nicotine delivery experience and have less resemblance to regular cigarettes than first generation cigalikes." The present study examined whether they generalize as a conditioned cue and evoke smoking urges or behavior in persons exposed to their use. Methods: Data were analyzed in N = 108 young adult smokers (≥5 cigarettes per week) randomized to either a traditional combustible cigarette smoking cue or a second generation ENDS vaping cue in a controlled laboratory setting. Cigarette and e-cigarette urge and desire were assessed pre- and post-cue exposure. Smoking behavior was also explored in a subsample undergoing a smoking latency phase after cue exposure (N = 26). Results: The ENDS vape pen cue evoked both urge and desire for a regular cigarette to a similar extent as that produced by the combustible cigarette cue. Both cues produced similar time to initiate smoking during the smoking latency phase. The ENDS vape pen cue elicited smoking urge and desire regardless of ENDS use history"
2014Secondhand exposure to vapors from electronic cigarettesNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/6/2014)LINKINTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. RESULTS: The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m(3). The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m(3), respectively; p = .0081). CONCLUSIONS: Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions.
2015Senators Press OMB to Quickly Review Rule Finally Regulating E-Cigarettes and Other Unregulated Tobacco Products(p. 10/21/201)LINKThe Official U.S. Senate website of Senator Jeff Merkley of Oregon
2020Short halt in vaping modifies cardiorespiratory parameters and urine metabolome: a randomized trialAmerican journal of physiology (p. 2/1/2020)LINKPropylene glycol and glycerol are e-cigarette constituents that facilitate liquid vaporization and nicotine transport. As these small hydrophilic molecules quickly cross the lung epithelium, we hypothesized that short-term cessation of vaping in regular users would completely clear aerosol deposit from the lungs and reverse vaping-induced cardiorespiratory toxicity. We aimed to assess the acute effects of vaping and their reversibility on biological/clinical cardiorespiratory parameters [serum/urine pneumoproteins, hemodynamic parameters, lung-function test and diffusing capacities, transcutaneous gas tensions (primary outcome), and skin microcirculatory blood flow]. Regular e-cigarette users were enrolled in this randomized, investigator-blinded, three-period crossover study. The periods consisted of nicotine-vaping (nicotine-session), nicotine-free vaping (nicotine-free-session), and complete cessation of vaping (stop-session), all maintained for 5 days before the session began. Multiparametric metabolomic analyses were used to verify subjects' protocol compliance. Biological/clinical cardiorespiratory parameters were assessed at the beginning of each session (baseline) and after acute vaping exposure. Compared with the nicotine- and nicotine-free-sessions, a specific metabolomic signature characterized the stop-session. Baseline serum club cell protein-16 was higher during the stop-session than the other sessions (P < 0.01), and heart rate was higher in the nicotine-session (P < 0.001). Compared with acute sham-vaping in the stop-session, acute nicotine-vaping (nicotine-session) and acute nicotine-free vaping (nicotine-free-session) slightly decreased skin oxygen tension (P < 0.05). In regular e-cigarette-users, short-term vaping cessation seemed to shift baseline urine metabolome and increased serum club cell protein-16 concentration, suggesting a decrease in lung inflammation. Additionally, acute vaping with and without nicotine decreased slightly transcutaneous oxygen tension, likely as a result of lung gas exchanges disturbances.Tags: (electronic nicotine delivery systems; metabolomics; nicotine; pneumoproteins; transcutaneous oxygen tension)
2014Short-term effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on exhaled nitric oxideToxicology and applied pharmacology (p. 7/1/2014)LINKThe objective of this study was to compare the short-term respiratory effects due to the inhalation of electronic and conventional tobacco cigarette-generated mainstream aerosols through the measurement of the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). To this purpose, twenty-five smokers were asked to smoke a conventional cigarette and to vape an electronic cigarette (with and without nicotine), and an electronic cigarette without liquid (control session). Electronic and tobacco cigarette mainstream aerosols were characterized in terms of total particle number concentrations and size distributions. On the basis of the measured total particle number concentrations and size distributions, the average particle doses deposited in alveolar and tracheobronchial regions of the lungs for a single 2-s puff were also estimated considering a subject performing resting (sitting) activity. Total particle number concentrations in the mainstream resulted equal to 3.5±0.4×10(9), 5.1±0.1×10(9), and 3.1±0.6×10(9) part. cm(-3) for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively. The corresponding alveolar doses for a resting subject were estimated equal to 3.8×10(10), 5.2×10(10) and 2.3×10(10) particles. The mean eNO variations measured after each smoking/vaping session were equal to 3.2ppb, 2.7ppb and 2.8ppb for electronic cigarettes without nicotine, with nicotine, and for conventional cigarettes, respectively; whereas, negligible eNO changes were measured in the control session. Statistical tests performed on eNO data showed statistically significant differences between smoking/vaping sessions and the control session, thus confirming a similar effect on human airways whatever the cigarette smoked/vaped, the nicotine content, and the particle dose received.Tags: (Alveolar and tracheobronchial particle dose; Electronic cigarette; Exhaled nitric oxide; Short-term effect; Tobacco cigarette; Ultrafine particles)
2012Short-term pulmonary effects of using an electronic cigarette: impact on respiratory flow resistance, impedance, and exhaled nitric oxideChest (p. 1/6/2012)LINKBACKGROUND: Debate exists over the scientific evidence for claims that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have no health-related ramifications. This study aimed to assess whether using an e-cigarette for 5 min has an impact on the pulmonary function tests and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) of healthy adult smokers. METHODS: Thirty healthy smokers (aged 19-56 years, 14 men) participated in this laboratory-based experimental vs control group study. Ab lib use of an e-cigarette for 5 min with the cartridge included (experimental group, n = 30) or removed from the device (control group, n = 10) was assessed. RESULTS: Using an e-cigarette for 5 min led to an immediate decrease in Feno within the experimental group by 2.14 ppb (P = .005) but not in the control group (P = .859). Total respiratory impedance at 5 Hz in the experimental group was found to also increase by 0.033 kPa/(L/s) (P < .001), and flow respiratory resistance at 5 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz also statistically increased. Regression analyses controlling for baseline measurements indicated a statistically significant decrease in Feno and an increase in impedance by 0.04 kPa/(L/s) (P = .003), respiratory resistance at 5 Hz by 0.04 kPa/(L/s) (P = .003), at 10 Hz by 0.034 kPa/(L/s) (P = .008), at 20 Hz by 0.043 kPa/(L/s) (P = .007), and overall peripheral airway resistance (β, 0.042 kPa/[L/s]; P = .024), after using an e-cigarette. CONCLUSIONS: e-Cigarettes assessed in the context of this study were found to have immediate adverse physiologic effects after short-term use that are similar to some of the effects seen with tobacco smoking; however, the long-term health effects of e-cigarette use are unknown but potentially adverse and worthy of further investigation.
2017Should e-cigarette use be included in indoor smoking bans?Bulletin of the World Health Organization (p. 7/1/2017)LINK
2014Should E-cigarettes Be Allowed In The Workplace?(p. 4/29/201)LINKJulia Louis-Dreyfus and Leonardo DiCaprio won’t be vaping at next year’s Golden Globe awards. The actors caused a stir in January when they puffed on electronic cigarettes during the ceremony. But as of April 19, e-cigarette use was banned in bars, restaurants and other public spaces throughout Los Angeles. E-cigarettes, battery-charged [...]
2013Should electronic cigarettes be as freely available as tobacco? YesBMJ (p. 6/14/2013)LINK
2014Smoking revolution: a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websitesAmerican journal of preventive medicine (p. 1/4/2014)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. PURPOSE: To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. METHODS: Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. RESULTS: Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%); increased social status (44%); enhanced social activity (32%); romance (31%); and use by celebrities (22%). CONCLUSIONS: Health claims and smoking-cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited.
2015Special Report: When it comes to e-cigs, Big Tobacco is concerned for your health(p. 3/23/201)LINKThe health warning on a MarkTen electronic cigarette package is 116 words long.
2010SRNT's Ruyan® E-cigarette Bench-top tests(p. 1/4/200)LINK
2013Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of electronic cigarettes versus nicotine patch for smoking cessationBMC public health (p. 3/8/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]) are electrically powered devices generally similar in appearance to a cigarette that deliver a propylene glycol and/or glycerol mist to the airway of users when drawing on the mouthpiece. Nicotine and other substances such as flavourings may be included in the fluid vaporised by the device. People report using e-cigarettes to help quit smoking and studies of their effects on tobacco withdrawal and craving suggest good potential as smoking cessation aids. However, to date there have been no adequately powered randomised trials investigating their cessation efficacy or safety. This paper outlines the protocol for this study. METHODS/DESIGN: DESIGN: Parallel group, 3-arm, randomised controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: People aged ≥18 years resident in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) who want to quit smoking. INTERVENTION: Stratified blocked randomisation to allocate participants to either Elusion™ e-cigarettes with nicotine cartridges (16 mg) or with placebo cartridges (i.e. no nicotine), or to nicotine patch (21 mg) alone. PARTICIPANTS randomised to the e-cigarette groups will be told to use them ad libitum for one week before and 12 weeks after quit day, while participants randomised to patches will be told to use them daily for the same period. All participants will be offered behavioural support to quit from the NZ Quitline. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Biochemically verified (exhaled carbon monoxide) continuous abstinence at six months after quit day. SAMPLE SIZE: 657 people (292 in both the nicotine e-cigarette and nicotine patch groups and 73 in the placebo e-cigarettes group) will provide 80% power at p = 0.05 to detect an absolute difference of 10% in abstinence between the nicotine e-cigarette and nicotine patch groups, and 15% between the nicotine and placebo e-cigarette groups. DISCUSSION: This trial will inform international debate and policy on the regulation and availability of e-cigarettes. If shown to be efficacious and safe, these devices could help many smokers as an alternative smoking cessation aid to standard nicotine products. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian NZ Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000866000).
2014Success rates with nicotine personal vaporizers: a prospective 6-month pilot study of smokers not intending to quitBMC public health (p. 11/8/2014)LINKBACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-Cigs) are an attractive long-term alternative nicotine source to conventional cigarettes. Although they may assist smokers to remain abstinent during their quit attempt, studies using first generation e-Cigs report low success rates. Second generation devices (personal vaporisers - PVs) may result in much higher quit rates, but their efficacy and safety in smoking cessation and/or reduction in clinical trials is unreported. METHOD: We conducted a prospective proof-of-concept study monitoring modifications in smoking behaviour of 50 smokers (unwilling to quit) switched onto PVs. Participants attended five study visits: baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 and week-24. Number of cigarettes/day (cigs/day) and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO) levels were noted at each visit. Smoking reduction/abstinence rates, product usage, adverse events and subjective opinions of these products were also reviewed. RESULTS: Sustained 50% and 80% reduction in cigs/day at week-24 was reported in 15/50 (30%) and 7/50 (14%) participants with a reduction from 25cigs/day to 6cigs/day (p < 0.001) and 3cigs/day (p < 0.001), respectively. Smoking abstinence (self-reported abstinence from cigarette smoking verified by an eCO ≤10 ppm) at week-24 was observed in 18/50 (36%) participants, with 15/18 (83.3%) still using their PVs at the end of the study. Combined 50% reduction and smoking abstinence was shown in 33/50 (66%) participants. Throat/mouth irritation (35.6%), dry throat/mouth (28.9%), headache (26.7%) and dry cough (22.2%) were frequently reported early in the study, but waned substantially by week-24. Participants' perception and acceptance of the products was very good. CONCLUSION: The use of second generation PVs substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant adverse effects in smokers not intending to quit. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02124200).
2011Successful smoking cessation with electronic cigarettes in smokers with a documented history of recurring relapses: a case seriesJournal of medical case reports (p. 12/20/2011)LINKINTRODUCTION: Smoking cessation programs are useful in helping smokers to quit, but smoking is a very difficult addiction to break and the need for novel and effective approaches to smoking cessation interventions is unquestionable. The E-cigarette is a battery-powered electronic nicotine delivery device that may help smokers to remain abstinent during their quit attempt. We report for the first time objective measures of smoking cessation in smokers who experimented with the E-cigarette. CASE PRESENTATION: Three Caucasian smokers (two men aged 47 and 65 years and one woman aged 38 years) with a documented history of recurring relapses were able to quit and to remain abstinent for at least six months after taking up an E-cigarette. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time that objective measures of smoking cessation are reported for smokers who quit successfully after using an E-cigarette. This was accomplished in smokers who repeatedly failed in previous attempts with professional smoking cessation assistance using the usual nicotine dependence treatments and smoking cessation counselling.
2018Surface Chemistry of Electronic Cigarette Electrical Heating Coils: Effects of Metal Type on Propylene Glycol Thermal DecompositionJournal of analytical and applied pyrolysis (p. 1/9/2018)LINKIntroduction: Carbonyls, a class of compounds strongly linked to pulmonary disease in smokers, are probably the most reported non-nicotine toxicants found aerosols. Reported emissions vary from negligible quantities to those far exceeding combustible cigarettes. Observations of high emissions are commonly attributed to dry puffing"", whereby the ECIG heating filament runs dry of liquid and reaches temperatures that induce thermal degradation of the ECIG vapor components at the filament's metal surface. Using a pyrolysis flow reactor,,
7627,2018,Role of testing standards in smoke-free product assessments,http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.06.021,0,1,1/10/2018 - Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology,fa-users,0,,,,,,#2c98cc,,,#162e6b,,#444444,,#8e8e8e,,#0a0a0a,,,,0,publish,Testing standards for tobacco and related products are an important basis for product science-based regulation. The recent emergence and rapid growth of products offering an alternative to continued smoking for adult smokers who would otherwise continue to smoke urgently calls for the establishment of quality and assessment standards relevant for these products. The two main categories of products under consideration are electronic cigarettes and heated tobacco products
2019Survey of the effect of viewing an online e-cigarette advertisement on attitudes towards cigarette and e-cigarette use in adults located in the UK and USA: a cross-sectional studyBMJ open (p. 6/18/2019)LINKOBJECTIVES: This study explored the potential for e-cigarette advertisements to (1) enhance attitudes towards cigarettes and/or (2) reduce barriers to e-cigarettes uptake. The study tested whether exposure to an online electronic cigarette advertisement changed attitudes towards cigarettes and e-cigarettes in smokers, non-smokers, e-cigarette users and dual users (smokers who also use e-cigarettes). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: Online survey PARTICIPANTS: Adults (n=964) aged 18 to 65 years old (M=36 years, SD=11.6) from the UK and USA. Participants were grouped into current non-smokers, e-cigarette users, dual users and smokers. INTERVENTIONS: Participants viewed 1 of 15 randomly assigned online e-cigarette advertisements. PRIMARY MEASURES: Three single seven-point Likert scales measuring health, desirability, social acceptability were completed pre and post advertisement exposure. RESULTS: Post exposure all smoking groups showed a decrease or no change in how socially acceptable or desirable they rated cigarettes. Paradoxically, dual users rated cigarettes as being significantly healthier after viewing the advertisement (p=0.01) while all other smoking group ratings remained the same. There was an increase or no change in how all smoking groups perceived the healthiness and desirability of e-cigarettes CONCLUSIONS: We observed no evidence that exposure to an e-cigarette advertisement renormalises or encourages smoking in smokers, non-smokers or e-cigarette users. However, there is some indication that viewing an e-cigarette advertisement may increase duals users' perceptions of the health of smoking.Tags: (advertisement; attitude; dual-users; e-cigarettes; smokers; tobacco)
2018Targeted Versus Nontargeted Communication About Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems in Three Smoker GroupsInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 9/21/2018)LINKBackground: This study used an audience segmentation and message targeting approach to identify three distinct smoker groups-Older Freedom Smokers (OFS), Reluctant Smokers (RS), and Young Enthusiasts (YE)-and examined whether an electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) message targeting each smoker group (targeted message) was associated with more health-enhancing outcomes than messages targeting other groups (nontargeted messages). Methods: An online experiment was conducted among 580 adult smokers with 180 OFS, 200 RS, and 200 YE. Each smoker group viewed a targeted message and two nontargeted messages in a random order. Following the presentation of each message, participants reported their perceived message effectiveness, message reactions, ENDS- and cigarette-related beliefs, and behavioral intentions. Results: The targeted vs. nontargeted messages mostly did not produce more health-enhancing outcomes on perceptions of absolute and comparative risks of ENDS and cigarettes, response efficacy of ENDS, and self-efficacy as well as intentions to quit smoking. Conclusions: Our targeted messages did not appear to be a better choice over nontargeted messages to communicate about ENDS to smokers. Given the increasing call to accurately inform the public of the risk differences among various tobacco products, future studies should continue to explore whether targeted messages could be employed to communicate about the comparative risks of ENDS.Tags: (ENDS; anti-smoking communication; audience segmentation; cigarettes; message targeting)
2010Tests for the chronic toxicity of propylene glycol and triethylene glycol on monkeys and rats by vapor inhalation and oral administrationThe Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics (p. 1/9/1947)LINKTags: (PROPYLENE GLYCOL/toxicity; TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL/toxicity on monkeys)
2018The American Cancer Society public health statement on eliminating combustible tobacco use in the United StatesCA (p. 1/7/2018)LINK
2013The Case for Tolerating E-Cigarettes(p. 12/9/201)LINKNo one believes that nicotine addiction is good, but efforts are best spent on minimizing the resulting harm.
2014The case in favor of E-cigarettes for tobacco harm reductionInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 1/6/2014)LINKA carefully structured Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) initiative, with e-cigarettes as a prominent THR modality, added to current tobacco control programming, is the most feasible policy option likely to substantially reduce tobacco-attributable illness and death in the United States over the next 20 years. E-cigarettes and related vapor products are the most promising harm reduction modalities because of their acceptability to smokers. There are about 46 million smokers in the United States, and an estimated 480,000 deaths per year attributed to cigarette smoking. These numbers have been essentially stable since 2004. Currently recommended pharmaceutical smoking cessation protocols fail in about 90% of smokers who use them as directed, even under the best of study conditions, when results are measured at six to twelve months. E-cigarettes have not been attractive to non-smoking teens or adults. Limited numbers non-smokers have experimented with them, but hardly any have continued their use. The vast majority of e-cigarette use is by current smokers using them to cut down or quit cigarettes. E-cigarettes, even when used in no-smoking areas, pose no discernable risk to bystanders. Finally, addition of a THR component to current tobacco control programming will likely reduce costs by reducing the need for counseling and drugs.
2014The changing face of tobacco use among United States youthCurrent drug abuse reviews (p. 2014)LINKTobacco use, primarily in the form of cigarettes, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States (U.S.). The adverse effects of tobacco use began to be recognized in the 1940's and new hazards of active smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure from cigarettes continue to be identified to this day. This has led to a sustained and wide-ranging array of highly effective regulatory, public health, and clinical efforts that have been informed by extensive scientific data, resulting in marked decreases in the use of cigarettes. Unfortunately, the dramatic recent decline in cigarette use in the U.S., has been accompanied by an upsurge in adolescent and young adult use of new, non-cigarette tobacco and nicotine-delivery products, commonly referred to as alternative tobacco products (ATPs). Commonly used ATPs include hookah, cigars, smokeless tobacco, and electronic cigarettes. While there have been a number of review articles that focus on adult ATP use, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of what is, and is not known about emerging ATP use among U.S. adolescents on a national scale; as well as to identify research gaps in knowledge, and discuss future health and policy needs for this growing public health concern. This paper is not meant to systemically review all published survey data, but to present clear depiction of selected ATP usage in youth populations using national survey data.
2015The chemical components of electronic cigarette cartridges and refill fluids: review of analytical methodsNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/3/2015)LINKINTRODUCTION: To date, several concerns have been raised on the purity of ingredients employed in the manufacturing processes of refill fluids and cartridges, the device functionality, and the quality control of electronic cigarettes. This article reviews analytical methods so far described for the analysis of liquids to detect their chemical components and to investigate the presence of toxicants and carcinogens that can potentially occur as impurities of ingredients or as a consequence of their degradation. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Based on the scientific literature, high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC/DAD) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are most appropriate for determining nicotine and related compounds in fluids and cartridges, whereas LC-MS/MS has been successfully used to determine nitrosamines. Content analyses of glycols have been performed using gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), whereas carbonyl and other volatile organic compounds determinations have been performed by HPLC/DAD and GC/MS, respectively. Content analyses of heavy metals have been performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Since new potentially toxic substances may be created during heating, it is also necessary to investigate the chemical composition of generated aerosol. In this case, similar methods applied for tobacco smoke can be adopted. CONCLUSIONS: A broad range of analytical techniques are available for the detection of constituents and toxicants in e-liquids and cartridges. Analyses of liquids have been performed with pharmacopeia procedures and methods (International Organization for Standardization, Environmental Protection Agency, and American Public Health Association) developed for other matrices but applicable to e-liquids. Because new potentially harmful substances may be produced during heating process, analyses of aerosol are needed to correlate its composition to the chemical components of liquids.
2018The effectiveness and safety of combining varenicline with nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in people with mental illnesses and addictions: study protocol for a randomised-controlled trialBMC public health (p. 5/4/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: Smoking rates are higher in New Zealand (NZ) adults with mental illnesses and alcohol and other drug (AOD) addictions, compared to the overall population. Quit attempts using gold standard" smoking cessation treatments often fail in people with these conditions" so more flexible treatment regimens that adapt to a person's responsiveness to treatment are worth investigating. The STATUS trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of combining varenicline with nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation among varenicline non-responders in treatment for mental health illnesses and/or AOD addictions. METHODS: This is a pragmatic two-arm
2018The effects of the European e-cigarette health warnings and comparative health messages on non-smokers' and smokers' risk perceptions and behavioural intentionsBMC public health (p. 11/14/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: Article 20 of the EU Tobacco Products Directive [TPD] stipulates that e-cigarette packets and refill products must carry a nicotine addiction health warning. Although previous studies conducted in North America have found that perceived harm, addictiveness and intention to use declined following exposure to e-cigarette health warnings, possible effects of the TPD health warnings on smokers and non-smokers has not been studied. This study will investigate the effects of the EU TPD e-cigarette health warnings and a comparative harm message (COMP; developed specifically for this study) on smokers' and non-smokers' perceptions of harm, addictiveness and social acceptability of e-cigarettes. Additionally, the potential effects of the TPD warnings and the COMP on smokers' intentions to purchase and use e-cigarettes will be explored. METHODS/DESIGN: A sample of 2400 UK residents will be recruited in this experimental, randomised design, with Smoking status (Smoker vs. Non-smoker), TPD presence (TPD1 vs. TPD2 vs. No-TPD) and COMP presence (Presence vs. Absence) as between subjects independent variables, and Time (pre-post exposure of images) as a within subjects factor. Dependent variables comprise self-reported perceived harm, addictiveness, social acceptability, e-cigarettes' effectiveness, intentions to purchase and use e-cigarettes. Cigarette dependence, previous e-cigarette exposure, and baseline intentions to quit will be measured as covariates. DISCUSSION: Health warnings, such as those implemented by the TPD, may help to prevent non-smokers from e-cigarettes use, but it is possible that they may inadvertently deter smokers from initiating use and substituting their tobacco smoking for e-cigarettes use if their content is deemed too negative. It is hoped that this study will help identify the most effective message or combination of messages that encourage use among smokers without promoting use among non-smokers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry ISRCTN76967031 ; date of registration: 23/10/18.Tags: (E-cigarettes; Electronic cigarettes; Health messages; Motivation to quit; Quit intentions; Risk perceptions; Tobacco products directive; Warning labels)
2019The Effects of Varying Electronic Cigarette Warning Label Design Features On Attention, Recall, and Product Perceptions Among Young AdultsHealth communication (p. 1/3/2019)LINKThis study was a 3 (Brand: Blu, MarkTen, Vuse) by 3 (Warning Size: 20%, 30%, or 50% of advertisement surface) by 2 (Warning Background: White, Red) experimental investigation of the effects of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) warning label design features. Young adults aged 18-30 years (n = 544) were recruited online, completed demographic and tobacco use history measures, and randomized to view e-cigarette advertisements with warning labels that varied by the experimental conditions. Participants completed a task assessing self-reported visual attention to advertisements with a-priori regions of interest defined around warning labels. Warning message recall and perceived addictiveness of e-cigarettes were assessed post-exposure. Approximately half of participants reported attending to warning labels and reported attention was greater for warnings on red versus white backgrounds. Recall of the warning message content was also greater among those reporting attention to the warning label. Overall, those who viewed warnings on red backgrounds reported lower perceived addictiveness than those who viewed warnings on white backgrounds, and e-cigarette users reported lower perceived addictiveness than non-users. Among e-cigarette users, viewing warnings on white backgrounds produced perceptions more similar to non-users. Greater recall was significantly correlated with greater perceived addictiveness. This study provides some of the first evidence that e-cigarette warning label design features including size and coloring affect self-reported attention and content recall.Tags: (Electronic cigarettes; warning labels; young adults)
2015The Electronic Cigarette: The Good, the Bad, and the UglyThe journal of allergy and clinical immunology in practice (p. 1/7/2015)LINKElectronic cigarettes (EC) are battery-powered nicotine delivery systems that have increased in popularity since they entered the US market. EC has been reported to contain less carcinogens than traditional cigarettes, cause less acute lung effects in healthy individuals, and may help with smoking cessation. It has also been viewed as a potential safer alternative for asthmatic smokers, but its effects on lung functions are unclear. However, EC do carry some harmful aspects as they contain formaldehyde and formaldehyde-forming hemiacetals as well as potentially toxic particulate matter that deposits on surfaces. EC are an increasingly popular device that could serve as a gateway into traditional cigarette smoking or illicit drugs. The popularity of EC has brought with it money from large tobacco corporations and mass marketing. Lack of regulation has generated product inconsistency and potential health hazards. This review highlights what is known and what still needs to be answered about EC.Tags: (Asthma; Carcinogen; Electronic cigarettes; Formaldehyde; Smokers; Tobacco cessation; Toxic; Vaping)
2012The electronic cigarette: what proportion of smokers have tried it and how many use it regularly?Addiction (p. 1/8/2012)LINK
2012The electronic-cigarette: effects on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms and cognitionAddictive behaviors (p. 1/8/2012)LINKElectronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapour. Few studies have evaluated acute effects on craving and mood, and none have explored effects on cognition. This study aimed to explore the effects of the White Super e-cigarette on desire to smoke, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, attention and working memory. Eighty-six smokers were randomly allocated to either: 18 mg nicotine e-cigarette (nicotine), 0mg e-cigarette (placebo), or just hold the e-cigarette (just hold) conditions. Participants rated their desire to smoke and withdrawal symptoms at baseline (T1), and five (T2) and twenty (T3) minutes after using the e-cigarette ad libitum for 5 min. A subset of participants completed the Letter Cancellation and Brown-Peterson Working Memory Tasks. After 20 min, compared with the just hold group, desire to smoke and some aspects of nicotine withdrawal were significantly reduced in the nicotine and placebo group; the nicotine e-cigarette was superior to placebo in males but not in females. The nicotine e-cigarette also improved working memory performance compared with placebo at the longer interference intervals. There was no effect of nicotine on Letter Cancellation performance. To conclude, the White Super e-cigarette alleviated desire to smoke and withdrawal symptoms 20 min after use although the nicotine content was more important for males. This study also demonstrated for the first time that the nicotine e-cigarette can enhance working memory performance. Further evaluation of the cognitive effects of the e-cigarette and its efficacy as a cessation tool is merited.
2014The impact of electronic cigarettes on the paediatric populationTobacco control (p. 1/5/2014)LINKOBJECTIVE: To review the impact of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on children. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched through 31 December 2013. Studies in English that included data for children younger than 18 years of age were included. In addition, relevant data from articles identified during searches of the e-cigarette literature, relevant state survey data and paediatric voluntary adverse event reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed and included. RESULTS: Use of e-cigarettes by youth is increasing and is not limited to traditional cigarette smokers. Data regarding the reasons for youth e-cigarette initiation and ongoing use are limited. The effects of e-cigarette marketing and the availability of flavoured e-liquids on youth use are unknown. The abuse liability of e-cigarettes in youth is also not known. Unintentional exposures to e-cigarettes and e-liquids have been reported in children. The number of e-cigarette-related reports received by poison centres is increasing. No data are available on secondhand and thirdhand e-cigarette aerosol exposures in children. CONCLUSIONS: Data on the impact of e-cigarettes on children are extremely limited. The available data indicate that youth awareness is high and use is increasing rapidly. The extent to which e-cigarette use in youth will result in nicotine dependence and subsequent use of other tobacco products is unknown. e-cigarettes present risks of unintentional nicotine exposure and are potential choking hazards. A greater understanding of the impact of e-cigarettes on children is needed and will be important in the evaluation of the effects of these products on the public health.Tags: (Electronic nicotine delivery devices; Non-cigarette tobacco products; Priority/special populations)
2015The Impact of Flavor Descriptors on Nonsmoking Teens' and Adult Smokers' Interest in Electronic CigarettesNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/10/2015)LINKINTRODUCTION: Smokers switching completely from combustible cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are likely to reduce health risk, suggesting that e-cigarettes should be made appealing to adult smokers. However, uptake of e-cigarettes by nonsmoking teens would add risk without benefit and should be avoided. Although e-cigarette flavors may appeal to adult smokers, the concern is that flavors might attract nonsmoking teens. METHODS: Nonsmoking teens (n = 216, ages 13-17, no tobacco in past 6 months) and adult smokers (n = 432, ages 19-80, smoking 3+ years; could have used e-cigarettes) were recruited from an Internet research panel. In assessments completed online (May 22, 2014 to June 13, 2014), participants indicated their interest (0-10 scale) in e-cigarettes paired with various flavor descriptors. These were mixed (order balanced) with similar flavor offerings for ice cream and bottled water to mask the focus on e-cigarettes and validate the assessment. Mixed models contrasted interest between teens and adults and among adults by e-cigarette history. RESULTS: Nonsmoking teens' interest in e-cigarettes was very low (mean = 0.41 ± 0.14 [SE] on 0-10 scale). Adult smokers' interest (1.73 ± 0.10), while modest, was significantly higher overall (p < .0001) and for each flavor (most p values < .0001). Teen interest did not vary by flavor (p = .75), but adult interest did (p < .0001). Past-30-day adult e-cigarette users had the greatest interest in e-cigarettes, and their interest was most affected by flavor. Adults who never tried e-cigarettes had the lowest interest, yet still higher than nonsmoking teens' interest (p < .0001). CONCLUSION: The e-cigarette flavors tested appealed more to adult smokers than to nonsmoking teens, but interest in flavors was low for both groups.
2015The importance of science-informed policy and what the data really tell us about e-cigarettesIsrael journal of health policy research (p. 5/15/2015)LINKA possible future end-game for cigarettes is explored in the context of the historical progress made to date by tobacco control. Despite good progress, there remains an urgent need to increase the use of proven tobacco control policies and practices for prevention and cessation. The problem is worse than previously thought and the 50(th) anniversary United States Surgeon General's report indicates the overwhelming majority of avoidable deaths are caused by combusting of tobacco, primarily cigarettes. The report highlights for the first time the addition of a harm minimization strategy to enhance proven tobacco control efforts and thus much more rapidly speed the obsolescence of cigarettes. Harm minimization can be two pronged. First, it can boost proven tobacco control polices to make cigarettes more expensive and less appealing and accessible to maximize the fact that cigarettes are orders of magnitude the most harmful of all tobacco delivery systems. Second, harm minimization can support use of substantially less harmful but appealing alternatives to substitute for lethal cigarettes for those users who are unable or unwilling to quit smoking. A future end-game might prudently manage emerging new products like e-cigarettes to help boost the difference in harm between them and lethal cigarettes. Harm minimization could help to accelerate the end of the century-long dominance of the cigarette in what has been called the golden holocaust". Rather than these emerging delivery devices being used to replace lethal cigarettes in what might be termed a David versus Goliath strategy to disrupt the status quo" there is also legitimate concern that these new products could undermine historically successful tobacco control efforts
2017The Influence of a Mouthpiece-Based Topography Measurement Device on Electronic Cigarette User's Plasma Nicotine Concentration, Heart Rate, and Subjective Effects Under Directed and Ad Libitum Use ConditionsNicotine & tobacco research (p. 4/1/2017)LINKIntroduction: Electronic cigarettes e-cigarettes aerosolize a liquid solution often containing nicotine. e-cigarette nicotine delivery may be influenced by user puffing behaviors (puff topography"). E-cigarette puff topography can be recorded using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. The present study sought to examine the extent to which these systems influence e-cigarette nicotine delivery and other e-cigarette associated acute effects under ad libitum use conditions. Methods: Plasma nicotine concentration" heart rate
2016The mutagenic assessment of an electronic-cigarette and reference cigarette smoke using the Ames assay in strains TA98 and TA100Mutation research (p. 1/12/2016)LINKSalmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were used to assess the mutagenic potential of the aerosol from a commercially available, rechargeable, closed system electronic-cigarette. Results obtained were compared to those for the mainstream smoke from a Kentucky reference (3R4F) cigarette. Two different test matrices were assessed. Aerosol generated from the e-cigarette was trapped on a Cambridge filter pad, eluted in DMSO and compared to cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), which was generated in the same manner for mutagenicity assessment in the Salmonella assay. Fresh e-cigarette and cigarette smoke aerosols were generated on the Vitrocell® VC 10 smoking robot and compared using a modified scaled-down 35mm air agar interface (AAI) methodology. E-cigarette aerosol collected matter (ACM) was found to be non-mutagenic in the 85mm plate incorporation Ames assay in strains TA98 and TA100 conducted in accordance with OECD 471, when tested up to 2400μg/plate. Freshly generated e-cigarette aerosol was also found to be negative in both strains after an AAI aerosol exposure, when tested up to a 1L/min dilution for up to 3h. Positive control responses were observed in both strains, using benzo[a]pyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, sodium azide and 2-aminoanthracene in TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of metabolic activation respectively. In contrast, cigarette smoke TPM and aerosol from 3R4F reference cigarettes were found to be mutagenic in both tester strains, under comparable test conditions to that of e-cigarette exposure. Limited information exists on the mutagenic activity of captured e-cigarette particulates and whole aerosol AAI approaches. With the lower toxicant burden of e-cigarette aerosols compared to cigarette smoke, it is clear that a more comprehensive Ames package of data should be generated when assessing e-cigarettes, consisting of the standard OECD-five, TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 (or TA97) and E. coli (or TA102). In addition, TA104 which is more sensitive to the carbonyl based compounds found in e-cigarette aerosols under dry-wicking conditions may also prove a useful addition in a testing battery. Regulatory standard product testing approaches as used in this study will become important when determining whether e-cigarette aerosols are in fact less biologically active than cigarette smoke, as this study suggests. Future studies should be supported by in vitro dosimetry approaches to draw more accurate comparisons between cigarette smoke, e-cigarette aerosol exposure and human use.Tags: (ACM; Aerosol exposure; Ames; Cigarette smoke; E-cigarettes; TA100; TA98; TPM; VC 10)
2015The Potential Adverse Health Consequences of Exposure to Electronic Cigarettes and Electronic Nicotine Delivery SystemsOncology nursing forum (p. 1/9/2015)LINKTobacco continues to be the leading cause of preventable death and illness in the United States and the world (World Health Organization, 2011). In addition, tobacco is responsible for one in three cancer deaths in the United States (American Cancer Society, 2015). Prevention of tobacco-related disease, disability, and death could be achieved by promoting tobacco control (i.e., preventing uptake, helping smokers quit, and protecting against exposure to secondhand smoke).Tags: (advocacy; tobacco cessation)
2014The renormalization of smoking? E-cigarettes and the tobacco endgameThe New England journal of medicine (p. 1/23/2014)LINK
2011The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011Harm reduction journal (p. 7/29/2011)LINKOver the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR), with a concomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate. Numerous epidemiologic studies and subsequent meta-analyses confirm that smokeless tobacco (ST) use is associated with minimal risks for cancer and for myocardial infarction; a small increased risk for stroke cannot be excluded. Studies from Sweden document that ST use is not associated with benign gastrointestinal disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases. Although any form of nicotine should be avoided during pregnancy, the highest risks for the developing baby are associated with smoking. It is documented that ST use has been a key factor in the declining rates of smoking and of smoking-related diseases in Sweden and Norway. For other countries, the potential population health benefits of ST are far greater than the potential risks. In follow-up studies, dual users of cigarettes and ST are less likely than exclusive smokers to achieve complete tobacco abstinence, but they are also less likely to be smoking. The health risks from dual use are probably lower than those from exclusive smoking. E-cigarette users are not exposed to the many toxicants, carcinogens and abundant free radicals formed when tobacco is burned. Although laboratory studies have detected trace concentrations of some contaminants, it is a small problem amenable to improvements in quality control and manufacturing that are likely with FDA regulation as tobacco products. There is limited evidence from clinical trials that e-cigarettes deliver only small doses of nicotine compared with conventional cigarettes. However, e-cigarette use emulates successfully the cigarette handling rituals and cues of cigarette smoking, which produces suppression of craving and withdrawal that is not entirely attributable to nicotine delivery. THR has been described as having the potential to lead to one of the greatest public health breakthroughs in human history by fundamentally changing the forecast of a billion cigarette-caused deaths this century.""",,,
7632,2010,A clinical laboratory model for evaluating the acute effects of electronic cigarettes: nicotine delivery profile and cardiovascular and subjective effects"""
2015The Welsh ban on vaping indoors makes no sense(p. 6/8/201)LINKA proposal to forbid e-cigarettes in enclosed spaces has no evidence behind it and will dissuade smokers from switching to a cleaner fix
2017They're heating up: Internet search query trends reveal significant public interest in heat-not-burn tobacco productsPloS one (p. 10/11/2017)LINKHeat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574) between their first (2015) and second (2016) complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173) between the products second (2016) and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017). There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79) during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep), with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn's rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes' rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490) times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304) compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13). Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing tobacco control strategies to account for heat-not-burn tobacco products, and preemptively study the health risks/benefits, popular perceptions, and health messaging around heat-not-burn tobacco products.
2020Tobacco and electronic cigarette cues for smoking and vaping: an online experimental studyBMC research notes (p. 1/15/2020)LINKOBJECTIVE: This study examined whether exposure to smoking and vaping cues the urge to smoke or vape. It extends previous studies on first-generation cigalikes (visually similar to cigarettes) and second-generation devices (visually similar to pens) by including third-generation tank system devices (larger bulky units). In an online experiment, participants were randomly assigned to view one of four videos, which included smoking, vaping (cigalike or tank system), or neutral cues. The primary outcome was urge to smoke. Secondary outcomes were urge to vape, desire to smoke and vape, and intention to quit or remain abstinent from smoking. RESULTS: UK adults varying in smoking (current or former) and vaping (user or non-user) status (n = 1120) completed the study: 184 (16%) failed study attention checks meaning 936 were included in the final analysis. Urges to smoke were similar across cue groups. Urges to vape were higher following exposure to vaping compared to neutral cues. There was no clear evidence of an interaction between cue group and smoking or vaping status. The lack of cueing effects on smoking urges is inconsistent with previous research, raising questions about the ability to assess craving in online settings.Tags: (Cigarette; Cue reactivity; E-cigarette; Policy; Public health; Smoking; Vaping)
2020Tobacco and electronic cigarettes adversely impact ECG indexes of ventricular repolarization: implication for sudden death riskAmerican journal of physiology (p. 5/1/2020)LINKTobacco cigarette smoking is associated with increased sudden death risk, perhaps through adverse effects on ventricular repolarization. The effect of electronic (e-)cigarettes on ventricular repolarization is unknown. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes have similar adverse effects on electrocardiogram (ECG) indexes of ventricular repolarization and these effects are attributable to nicotine. ECG recordings were obtained in 37 chronic tobacco cigarette smokers, 43 chronic e-cigarette users, and 65 nonusers. Primary outcomes, Tpeak to Tend (Tp-e), Tp-e/QT ratio, and Tp-e/QTc ratio, were measured in tobacco cigarette smokers pre-/post-straw control and smoking one tobacco cigarette and in e-cigarette users and nonusers pre-/post-straw control and using an e-cigarette with and without nicotine (different days). Mean values of the primary outcomes were not different among the three groups at baseline. In chronic tobacco cigarette smokers, all primary outcomes, including the Tp-e (12.9 ± 5.0% vs. 1.5 ± 5%, P = 0.017), Tp-e/QT (14.9 ± 5.0% vs. 0.7 ± 5.1%, P = 0.004), and Tp-e/QTc (11.9 ± 5.0% vs. 2.1 ± 5.1%, P = 0.036), were significantly increased pre-/post-smoking one tobacco cigarette compared with pre-/post-straw control. In chronic e-cigarette users, the Tp-e/QT (6.3 ± 1.9%, P = 0.046) was increased only pre/post using an e-cigarette with nicotine but not pre/post the other exposures. The changes relative to the changes after straw control were greater after smoking the tobacco cigarette compared with using the e-cigarette with nicotine for Tp-e (11.4 ± 4.4% vs. 1.1 ± 2.5%, P < 0.05) and Tp-e/QTc (9.8 ± 4.4% vs. -1.6 ± 2.6%, P = 0.05) but not Tp-e/QT(14.2 ± 4.5% vs. 4.2 ± 2.6%, P = 0.061) . Heart rate increased similarly after the tobacco cigarette and e-cigarette with nicotine. Baseline ECG indexes of ventricular repolarization were not different among chronic tobacco cigarette smokers, electronic cigarette users and nonusers. An adverse effect of acute tobacco cigarette smoking on ECG indexes of ventricular repolarization was confirmed. In chronic e-cigarette users, an adverse effect of using an e-cigarette with nicotine, but not without nicotine, on ECG indexes of ventricular repolarization was also observed.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Abnormal ventricular repolarization, as indicated by prolonged Tpeak-end (Tp-e), is associated with increased sudden death risk. Baseline ECG indexes of repolarization, Tp-e, Tp-e/QT, and Tp-e/QTc, were not different among tobacco cigarette (TC) smokers, electronic cigarette (EC) users, and nonsmokers at baseline, but when TC smokers smoked one TC, all parameters were prolonged. Using an electronic cigarette with nicotine, but not without nicotine, increased the Tp-e/QT. Smoking induces changes in ECG indexes of ventricular repolarization associated with increased sudden death risk.Tags: (electronic cigarettes; nicotine; smoking; sudden death; tobacco cigarettes; ventricular repolarization)
2019Tobacco Smoking and Brain Endogenous Opioid Release: More Than Nicotine AloneNicotine & tobacco research (p. 5/21/2019)LINKINTRODUCTION: The effects of smoking denicotinized (denic) and average nicotine (avnic) tobacco cigarettes were studied on brain mu opioid receptor binding by positron emission tomography with 11C carfentanil. The results indicated the importance of physiological and psychological effects induced by denic smoking. METHODS: Regional mu opioid binding potential (nondisplaceable binding potential, BPND) was measured in 20 adult male overnight abstinent chronic tobacco smokers. The denic sessions were conducted about 8:00 am followed by avnic sessions about 2 hours later. Venous plasma nicotine levels and scores of craving to smoke were assessed before and after each smoking session. Fagerstrom scores of nicotine dependence were determined. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation tests were used to examine associations between BPND and other smoking parameters. RESULTS: Surprisingly, the very low plasma nicotine peak levels after denic smoking (mean ± SD: 3.3 ± 1.8 ng/mL) were significantly correlated with BPND after denic and avnic smoking. Equally surprising no association was found between nicotine levels after avnic smoking and BPND. Delta craving scores and Fagerstrom scores were correlated with both BPND after denic and avnic in several brain regions. CONCLUSIONS: Very small amounts of nicotine, psychological and behavioral effects of denic smoking appear to have important actions on the endogenous mu opioid system. IMPLICATIONS: Associations between very low venous plasma nicotine levels after denic smoking and regional brain mu opioid receptor availability are a surprising placebo" effect. Delta craving and Fagerstrom scores were correlated with BPND in several brain regions including amygdala" hippocampus
2015Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Electronic Cigarettes: Comparison between Liquid and Aerosol LevelsInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 7/31/2015)LINKINTRODUCTION: Although electronic cigarette (EC) liquids contain low levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), studies evaluating the levels emitted to the aerosol are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of TSNAs between liquids and generated aerosol. METHODS: Three EC liquids were obtained from the market. An additional (spiked) sample was prepared by adding known amounts of standard TSNAs solutions to one of the obtained liquids. N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were measured. Three 100-puff sets from each liquid were trapped in filter pads and were subsequently analyzed for the presence of TSNAs. The expected levels of TSNAs (calculated based on the liquid consumption) were compared with the measured levels in the aerosol. RESULTS: Only NAB was found at trace levels in two commercial liquids (1.2 and 2.3 ng/g), while the third contained 1.5 ng/g NAB and 7.7 ng/g NNN. The 100-puff sets resulted in 336-515 mg liquid consumption, with no TSNAs being detected in the aerosol. The spiked sample contained 42.0-53.9 ng/g of each of the TSNAs. All TSNAs were detected in the aerosol with the measured levels being statistically similar to the expected amounts. A significant correlation between expected and measured levels of TSNAs in the aerosol was found (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that exposure of EC users to TSNAs can be accurately assessed based on the levels present in the liquid, without the need to analyze the aerosol.Tags: (aerosol; electronic cigarettes; nicotine; smoking; tobacco; tobacco-specific nitrosamines)
2015Toxicity assessment of refill liquids for electronic cigarettesInt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 4/30/2015)LINKWe analyzed 42 models from 14 brands of refill liquids for e-cigarettes for the presence of micro-organisms, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and solvents. All the liquids under scrutiny complied with norms for the absence of yeast, mold, aerobic microbes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol and ethanol were detected, but remained within limits authorized for food and pharmaceutical products. Terpenic compounds and aldehydes were found in the products, in particular formaldehyde and acrolein. No sample contained nitrosamines at levels above the limit of detection (1 μg/g). Residual solvents such as 1,3-butadiene, cyclohexane and acetone, to name a few, were found in some products. None of the products under scrutiny were totally exempt of potentially toxic compounds. However, for products other than nicotine, the oral acute toxicity of the e-liquids tested seems to be of minor concern. However, a minority of liquids, especially those with flavorings, showed particularly high ranges of chemicals, causing concerns about their potential toxicity in case of chronic oral exposure.
2017Toxicity evaluation of e-juice and its soluble aerosols generated by electronic cigarettes using recombinant bioluminescent bacteria responsive to specific cellular damagesBiosensors & bioelectronics (p. 4/15/2017)LINKElectronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette) are widely used as an alternative to traditional cigarettes but their safety is not well established. Herein, we demonstrate and validate an analytical method to discriminate the deleterious effects of e-cigarette refills (e-juice) and soluble e-juice aerosol (SEA) by employing stress-specific bioluminescent recombinant bacterial cells (RBCs) as whole-cell biosensors. These RBCs carry luxCDABE-operon tightly controlled by promoters that specifically induced to DNA damage (recA), superoxide radicals (sodA), heavy metals (copA) and membrane damage (oprF). The responses of the RBCs following exposure to various concentrations of e-juice/SEA was recorded in real-time that showed dose-dependent stress specific-responses against both the e-juice and vaporized e-juice aerosols produced by the e-cigarette. We also established that high doses of e-juice (4-folds diluted) lead to cell death by repressing the cellular machinery responsible for repairing DNA-damage, superoxide toxicity, ion homeostasis and membrane damage. SEA also caused the cellular damages but the cells showed enhanced bioluminescence expression without significant growth inhibition, indicating that the cells activated their global defense system to repair these damages. DNA fragmentation assay also revealed the disintegration of total cellular DNA at sub-toxic doses of e-juice. Despite their state of matter, the e-juice and its aerosols induce cytotoxicity and alter normal cellular functions, respectively that raises concerns on use of e-cigarettes as alternative to traditional cigarette. The ability of RBCs in detecting both harmful effects and toxicity mechanisms provided a fundamental understanding of biological response to e-juice and aerosols.Tags: (Bioluminescence; Biosensor; E-cigarette; E-juice; Toxicity; lux)
2014Trends in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems by adolescentsAddictive behaviors (p. 1/1/2014)LINKElectronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have been gaining in popularity. The few prevalence studies in adults have found that most ENDS users are current or former smokers. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of ENDS usage in adolescents, and examine the correlates of use. Self-administered written surveys assessing tobacco use behaviors were conducted in multiple waves as part of a larger intervention study in two large suburban high schools. The prevalence of past-30 day ENDS use increased from 0.9% in February 2010 to 2.3% in June 2011 (p=0.009). Current cigarette smokers had increased odds of past-30 day ENDS use in all study waves. When adjusted for school, grade, sex, race and smoking status, students in October 2010 (Adjusted OR 2.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-4.02) and June 2011 (Adjusted OR 2.51; 95% CI: 1.17-4.71) had increased odds past-30 day ENDS use compared to February 2010. The prevalence of ENDS use doubled in this sample of high school students, and current cigarette smoking is the strongest predictor of current use. Continued monitoring of ENDS is needed to determine whether it increases the likelihood of cigarette smoking initiation and maintenance in youth.Tags: (Adolescent; Epidemiology; Tobacco)
2018Type of E-Cigarette Device Used Among Adolescents and Young Adults: Findings From a Pooled Analysis of Eight Studies of 2166 VapersNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/5/2018)LINKBackground: A recent study of adult smokers who vape found that disposable/cigalike electronic (e-) cigarette devices were more commonly used than later generation devices. However, whether these trends reflect patterns among adolescents and young adults, many of whom have limited or no history of combustible cigarette use, has not been studied. Methods: Participants were drawn from eight locally, regionally, and US nationally representative studies. Surveys took place between Fall 2014 and Spring 2016; participants were residents of California (3 studies), Texas (2 studies), Connecticut (1 study), or randomly selected from the US population (2 studies). Data were collected from middle and high school students (4 studies), young adults under 30 (3 studies), or a mixture (1 study) to assess type of e-cigarette device used among past-30 day e-cigarette users: disposable/cigalike, or later generation e-cigarette device. Results: Fewer than 15% of participants in each study reported primarily using a disposable/cigalike device in the past month (across all studies: 7.5%; 95%CI: 4.9%, 10.5%). The proportion using later generation devices ranged from 58% to 86% across studies; overall, 77.0% (95%CI: 70.5%, 82.9%) reported primary use of a later generation device. Combined, 13.2% (95%CI: 5.9%, 22.8%) reported don't know" or were missing data. Conclusions: Among adolescent and young adult e-cigarette users" primary use of disposable/cigalike devices was rare. Future research should continue to evaluate the type of device used by adolescents and young adults
2014Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumersInternational journal of hygiene and environmental health (p. 1/7/2014)LINKDespite the recent popularity of e-cigarettes, to date only limited data is available on their safety for both users and secondhand smokers. The present study reports a comprehensive inner and outer exposure assessment of e-cigarette emissions in terms of particulate matter (PM), particle number concentrations (PNC), volatile organic compounds (VOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbonyls, and metals. In six vaping sessions nine volunteers consumed e-cigarettes with and without nicotine in a thoroughly ventilated room for two hours. We analyzed the levels of e-cigarette pollutants in indoor air and monitored effects on FeNO release and urinary metabolite profile of the subjects. For comparison, the components of the e-cigarette solutions (liquids) were additionally analyzed. During the vaping sessions substantial amounts of 1,2-propanediol, glycerine and nicotine were found in the gas-phase, as well as high concentrations of PM2.5 (mean 197 μg/m(3)). The concentration of putative carcinogenic PAH in indoor air increased by 20% to 147 ng/m(3), and aluminum showed a 2.4-fold increase. PNC ranged from 48,620 to 88,386 particles/cm(3) (median), with peaks at diameters 24-36 nm. FeNO increased in 7 of 9 individuals. The nicotine content of the liquids varied and was 1.2-fold higher than claimed by the manufacturer. Our data confirm that e-cigarettes are not emission-free and their pollutants could be of health concern for users and secondhand smokers. In particular, ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor can be deposited in the lung, and aerosolized nicotine seems capable of increasing the release of the inflammatory signaling molecule NO upon inhalation. In view of consumer safety, e-cigarettes and nicotine liquids should be officially regulated and labeled with appropriate warnings of potential health effects, particularly of toxicity risk in children.Tags: (Electronic cigarette; FeNO; Health effects; Indoor air quality; Nicotine; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Secondhand smoking; Vaping; Volatile organic compounds; e-Cigarette)
2013Use of electronic cigarettes among state tobacco cessation quitline callersNicotine & tobacco research (p. 1/10/2013)LINKINTRODUCTION: Little is known about the prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among tobacco users who seek help from state tobacco quitlines, the reasons for its use, and whether e-cigarettes impact a user's ability to successfully quit tobacco. This study investigates these questions and describes differences among state quitline callers who used e-cigarettes for 1 month or more, used e-cigarettes for less than 1 month, or never tried e-cigarettes. METHODS: Data on e-cigarette use were collected from 2,758 callers to 6 state tobacco quitlines 7 months after they received intervention from the quitline program. RESULTS: Nearly one third (30.9%) of respondents reported ever using or trying e-cigarettes; most used for a short period of time (61.7% for less than 1 month). The most frequently reported reasons for use were to help quit other tobacco (51.3%) or to replace other tobacco (15.2%). Both e-cigarette user groups were significantly less likely to be tobacco abstinent at the 7-month survey compared with participants who had never tried e-cigarettes (30-day point prevalence quit rates: 21.7% and 16.6% vs. 31.3%, p < .001). Demographic differences between the 3 groups are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers a preliminary look at e-cigarette use among state quitline callers and is perhaps the first to describe e-cigarette use in a large group of tobacco users seeking treatment. The notable rates of e-cigarette use and use of e-cigarettes as cessation aids, even though the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not approved e-cigarettes for this purpose, should inform policy and treatment discussions on this topic.
2013Using twitter to examine smoking behavior and perceptions of emerging tobacco productsJournal of medical Internet research (p. 8/29/2013)LINKBACKGROUND: Social media platforms such as Twitter are rapidly becoming key resources for public health surveillance applications, yet little is known about Twitter users' levels of informedness and sentiment toward tobacco, especially with regard to the emerging tobacco control challenges posed by hookah and electronic cigarettes. OBJECTIVE: To develop a content and sentiment analysis of tobacco-related Twitter posts and build machine learning classifiers to detect tobacco-relevant posts and sentiment towards tobacco, with a particular focus on new and emerging products like hookah and electronic cigarettes. METHODS: We collected 7362 tobacco-related Twitter posts at 15-day intervals from December 2011 to July 2012. Each tweet was manually classified using a triaxial scheme, capturing genre, theme, and sentiment. Using the collected data, machine-learning classifiers were trained to detect tobacco-related vs irrelevant tweets as well as positive vs negative sentiment, using Naïve Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms. Finally, phi contingency coefficients were computed between each of the categories to discover emergent patterns. RESULTS: The most prevalent genres were first- and second-hand experience and opinion, and the most frequent themes were hookah, cessation, and pleasure. Sentiment toward tobacco was overall more positive (1939/4215, 46% of tweets) than negative (1349/4215, 32%) or neutral among tweets mentioning it, even excluding the 9% of tweets categorized as marketing. Three separate metrics converged to support an emergent distinction between, on one hand, hookah and electronic cigarettes corresponding to positive sentiment, and on the other hand, traditional tobacco products and more general references corresponding to negative sentiment. These metrics included correlations between categories in the annotation scheme (phihookah-positive=0.39; phi(e-cigs)-positive=0.19); correlations between search keywords and sentiment (χ²₄=414.50, P<.001, Cramer's V=0.36), and the most discriminating unigram features for positive and negative sentiment ranked by log odds ratio in the machine learning component of the study. In the automated classification tasks, SVMs using a relatively small number of unigram features (500) achieved best performance in discriminating tobacco-related from unrelated tweets (F score=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Novel insights available through Twitter for tobacco surveillance are attested through the high prevalence of positive sentiment. This positive sentiment is correlated in complex ways with social image, personal experience, and recently popular products such as hookah and electronic cigarettes. Several apparent perceptual disconnects between these products and their health effects suggest opportunities for tobacco control education. Finally, machine classification of tobacco-related posts shows a promising edge over strictly keyword-based approaches, yielding an improved signal-to-noise ratio in Twitter data and paving the way for automated tobacco surveillance applications.natural language processing; smoking; social media; twitter messaging
2018Vape shops: who uses them and what do they do?BMC public health (p. 4/23/2018)LINKBACKGROUND: 'Vape shops' are a popular source for buying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and related products. The products that vape shops sell, their marketing techniques and the extent to which they provide information or encouragement to smokers to quit tobacco use, as well as the patterns of tobacco and e-cigarette use of their customers are not well understood. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional surveys in vape shops in the East Midlands region of the United Kingdom, one with shop staff (n = 41), and one with customers (n = 197). RESULTS: The majority of customers (84%) currently used e-cigarettes. Among current vapers, 19% were dual users and 78% had quit smoking. Over half of vapers reported using a lower level of nicotine in their current e-liquid than when they started using e-cigarettes. There was a wide variety in products and price ranges between the shops. Many staff reported that customers ask for information about quitting smoking (90%). Less than half reported providing smoking cessation advice, although 76% of staff reported feeling confident about delivering cessation advice to customers who ask for it. Just under half of customers and shop staff said they thought it was appropriate to deliver formal in-store smoking cessation support. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of vape shop customers are vapers who have quit smoking. Shop staff play a central role in providing customers with product information, and many provide smoking cessation advice. Further research is needed to investigate the potential for smoking cessation interventions in vape shops, including the extent to which these would appeal to non-vapers.Tags: (E-cigarettes; Harm reduction; Smoking cessation; Vape shops)
2019Vaping as an alternative to smoking relapse following brief lapseDrug and alcohol review (p. 1/1/2019)LINKBACKGROUND AND AIMS: E-cigarettes are the most popular aid to quitting smoking in the UK. Although many smokers quit, relapse is common. Historically, the literature has reported strong associations between tobacco smoking lapse and relapse following a quit attempt. This article aims to explore how smoking lapse is experienced by those who vape to quit smoking. DESIGN AND METHODS: A purposive sample of 40 UK vapers were matched to a sampling frame from a representative sample of UK quitters. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were thematically analysed iteratively situating reported experiences of smoking lapse within narrative descriptions of vaping. Iterative categorization was used as a technique to further explore a subset of data specifically focused on smoking lapse. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that smoking lapse is perceived qualitatively differently when using e-cigarettes as compared to past quit attempts. Having the pleasurable alternative of vaping meant that full relapse to smoking was not inevitable. Instead, lapses were perceived as 'permissive' or 'purposive', intentional and contextualised, or for some as unintentional, with the resulting emotional response negatively reinforcing ongoing tobacco smoking abstinence. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our novel findings suggest that the role of tobacco smoking lapse in relation to relapse status may be theoretically redefined, drawing on data from vapers. These findings question the utility of previous theories of the role of smoking lapse in the relapse process. For ex-smokers, vaping offers a pleasurable, viable pharmacological, but also social and psychological, substitution option for smoking and potentially powerfully alters the experience and threat of any lapse.Tags: (electronic cigarette; qualitative; smoking relapse prevention; vaping)
2019Vaping characteristics and expectancies are associated with smoking cessation propensity among dual users of combustible and electronic cigarettesAddiction (p. 1/5/2019)LINKBACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most e-cigarette users who also smoke combustible cigarettes (dual users) begin vaping to quit smoking, yet only a subset succeeds. We hypothesized that reinforcing characteristics of e-cigarettes (vaping reinforcement) would positively predict smoking cessation propensity (SCP) among dual users. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from dual users in an ongoing smoking cessation trial. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA) created latent variables for vaping reinforcement and SCP. A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to test the hypothesis. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: A national sample of dual users of combustible and electronic cigarettes who smoke and vape at least once per week (n = 2896) were enrolled (63% male; mean age = 29.9 years) into a randomized controlled trial in which they would receive either smoking cessation materials or no smoking cessation materials. MEASUREMENTS: Vaping reinforcement was indexed by vaping frequency (days/week vaping, times/day vaping, puffs/e-cigarette use), e-cigarette characteristics [numbers of modifications and tobacco or non-tobacco flavors, nicotine content (mg) and positive e-cigarette expectancies]. SCP was measured by items of confidence, commitment to being smoke-free, cessation motivation (contemplation ladder), change in cigarettes per day since beginning e-cigarette use and negative smoking expectancies. FINDINGS: Four factors emerged from the EFA: vaping propensity (vaping frequency, positive expectancies), vaping enthusiasm (e-cigarette modifications, using non-tobacco flavors, puffs per use), nicotine/tobacco flavor (nicotine strength, tobacco flavors) and SCP (negative expectancies about smoking, motivation to quit smoking, reduction in smoking). A CFA upheld the exploratory factor structure [root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.046, CFI = 0.91]. An SEM with the three vaping latent variables directly predicting SCP had good model fit (RMSEA = 0.030, CFI = 0.97) with a positive relationship of vaping propensity (0.509, P < 0.001), and small negative relationships of vaping enthusiasm (-0.158, P = 0.014) and nicotine/tobacco flavor (-0.230, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among e-cigarette users who also smoke combustible cigarettes, frequent vaping combined with positive e-cigarette expectancies appears to predict greater smoking cessation propensity. However, vaping enthusiasm (measured by e-cigarette modifications, using non-tobacco flavors and puffs per use), higher nicotine content and use of tobacco flavored solution may reduce cessation propensity.Tags: (Dual-use; e-cigarettes; latent variable; smoking; smoking cessation; structural equation modeling)
2017Vaping to lose weight: Predictors of adult e-cigarette use for weight loss or controlAddictive behaviors (p. 1/3/2017)LINKINTRODUCTION: Some traditional cigarette smokers are motivated to smoke to lose weight or control their weight. The current study evaluated whether a subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping to lose or control their weight and examined potential predictors of vaping for weight management. METHODS: Adult e-cigarette users (n=459) who reported wanting to lose weight or maintain their weight completed an anonymous online survey. Participants reported on demographics, vaping frequency, e-cigarette nicotine content, cigarette smoking status, preferred e-cigarette/e-liquid flavors, current weight status (i.e., overweight, underweight), use of dieting strategies associated with anorexia and bulimia, lifetime history of binge eating, self-discipline, and impulse control. Binary logistic regression was used to examine whether vaping for weight loss/control was associated with the aforementioned variables. RESULTS: Participants who reported vaping for weight loss/control (13.5%) were more likely to vape frequently (adjOR=1.15; 95% CI [1.00, 1.31]); be overweight (adjOR=2.80; [1.33, 5.90]); restrict calories (adjOR=2.23; [1.13, 4.42]); have poor impulse control (adjOR=0.59; [0.41, 0.86]); and prefer coffee- (adjOR=2.92; [1.47, 5.80]) or vanilla-flavored e-liquid (adjOR=7.44; [1.56, 36.08]). CONCLUSIONS: A subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping for weight loss/control, raising concerns about expanded, scientifically unsubstantiated uses of e-cigarettes. Identifying where individuals obtain information about vaping for weight loss (e.g., e-cigarette ads, Internet) and whether weight-related motives promote e-cigarette initiation among e-cigarette naïve individuals is important to informing regulatory efforts. Further research also is needed to better understand the link between e-liquid flavors and weight loss motivations.Tags: (E-cigarettes; Eating disorder; Electronic cigarettes; Vaping; Weight; Weight loss)
2013Vaping' profiles and preferences: an online survey of electronic cigarette usersAddiction (p. 1/6/2013)LINKAIMS: To characterize e-cigarette use, users and effects in a sample of Electronic Cigarette Company (TECC) and Totally Wicked E-Liquid (TWEL) users. DESIGN AND SETTING: Online survey hosted at the University of East London with links from TECC/TWEL websites from September 2011 to May 2012. MEASUREMENTS: Online questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand three hundred and forty-seven respondents from 33 countries (72% European), mean age 43 years, 70% male, 96% Causasian, 44% educated to degree level or above. FINDINGS: Seventy-four percent of participants reported not smoking for at least a few weeks since using the e-cigarette and 70% reported reduced urge to smoke. Seventy-two percent of participants used a 'tank' system, most commonly, the eGo-C (23%). Mean duration of use was 10 months. Only 1% reported exclusive use of non-nicotine (0 mg) containing liquid. E-cigarettes were generally considered to be satisfying to use; elicit few side effects; be healthier than smoking; improve cough/breathing; and be associated with low levels of craving. Among ex-smokers, 'time to first vape' was significantly longer than 'time to first cigarette' (t1104 = 11.16, P < 0.001) suggesting a lower level of dependence to e-cigarettes. Ex-smokers reported significantly greater reduction in craving than current smokers (χ(2) 1 = 133.66, P < 0.0007) although few other differences emerged between these groups. Compared with males, females opted more for chocolate/sweet flavours (χ(2) 1 = 16.16, P < 0.001) and liked the e-cigarette because it resembles a cigarette (χ(2) 3 = 42.65, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarettes are used primarily for smoking cessation, but for a longer duration than nicotine replacement therapy, and users believe them to be safer than smoking.
2015Vapors produced by electronic cigarettes and e-juices with flavorings induce toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells and in mouse lungPloS one (p. 2/6/2015)LINKOxidative stress and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases. The consumption of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) with a variety of e-liquids/e-juices is alarmingly increasing without the unrealized potential harmful health effects. We hypothesized that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)/e-cigs pose health concerns due to oxidative toxicity and inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to their aerosols. The aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS) may be inhaled directly into the lung during a vaping" session. These OX/ROS are generated through activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status (new versus used)" and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization. Unvaporized e-liquids were oxidative in a manner dependent on flavor additives
2015What is wrong with the Tobacco Products Directive for vapour products?(p. 5/22/201)LINKThe European Union directive governing e-cigarette regulation is a catalogue of poorly designed, disproportionate and discriminatory measures that will achieve nothing useful but do a great deal of…
2015Which nicotine products are gateways to regular use? First-tried tobacco and current use in college studentsAmerican journal of preventive medicine (p. 1/1/2015)LINKBACKGROUND: The potential for emerging tobacco products (ETPs) to be gateway products for further tobacco use among youth is of significant concern. PURPOSE: To examine use of various nicotine-containing products on a tobacco-free college campus and whether the first product tried predicts subsequent tobacco use. METHODS: Undergraduate students (N=1,304) at a large university completed an online survey of past/current use of cigarettes; smokeless tobacco (SLT); hookah; ETPs (dissolvables, snus, and electronic cigarettes); and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Data were collected from September 2012 to May 2013 and analyses were conducted from June to September 2013. Students were classified as single, dual, or poly tobacco users. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 79.5% non-users, 13.8% single, 4.4% dual, and 1.5% poly users. Overall, 49.4% of participants reported trying a tobacco product. Hookah was the most tried product (38%), but cigarettes were most often the first product ever tried (51%). First product tried did not predict current tobacco use and non-use, but individuals who first tried SLT or cigarettes (rather than hookah or ETPs) were more likely to be poly tobacco users. Current tobacco users who first tried ETPs or hookah were largely non-daily users of hookah; current tobacco users who first tried cigarettes or SLT were largely non-daily or daily users of cigarettes/SLT. CONCLUSIONS: Hookah and ETPs are increasingly becoming the first tobacco product ever tried by youth; however, uptake of ETPs is poor, unlike cigarettes and SLT, and does not appear to lead to significant daily/non-daily use of cigarettes and SLT.
2017Young People's Use of E-Cigarettes across the United Kingdom: Findings from Five Surveys 2015-2017Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health (p. 8/29/2017)LINKConcern has been expressed about the use of e-cigarettes among young people. Our study reported e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette ever and regular use among 11-16 year olds across the UK. Data came from five large scale surveys with different designs and sampling strategies conducted between 2015 and 2017: The Youth Tobacco Policy Survey; the Schools Health Research Network Wales survey; two Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) Smokefree Great Britain-Youth Surveys; and the Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey. Cumulatively these surveys collected data from over 60,000 young people. For 2015/16 data for 11-16 year olds: ever smoking ranged from 11% to 20%; regular (at least weekly) smoking between 1% and 4%; ever use of e-cigarettes 7% to 18%; regular (at least weekly) use 1% to 3%; among never smokers, ever e-cigarette use ranged from 4% to 10% with regular use between 0.1% and 0.5%; among regular smokers, ever e-cigarette use ranged from 67% to 92% and regular use 7% to 38%. ASH surveys showed a rise in the prevalence of ever use of e-cigarettes from 7% (2016) to 11% (2017) but prevalence of regular use did not change remaining at 1%. In summary, surveys across the UK show a consistent pattern: most e-cigarette experimentation does not turn into regular use, and levels of regular use in young people who have never smoked remain very low.Tags: (e-cigarettes; prevalence; smoking; surveys; tobacco; youth)
2015YSPH study finds Banning E-Cigarette Sales to Minors Spurs Conventional Smoking(p. 10/30/201)LINKMore than 40 states have banned the sale of electronic cigarettes to minors, but a new study out of the Yale School of Public Health indicates that these measures have an unintended and dangerous consequence: increasing adolescents’ use of conventional cigarettes.
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